Frontiers of Optoelectronics

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 212–219 | Cite as

Comparison of diode laser in soft tissue surgery using continuous wave and pulsed modes in vitro

  • Andrey V. Belikov
  • Alexei V. Skrypnik
  • Ksenia V. Shatilova
Research Article


In this study, the interaction between diode laser radiation and chicken soft tissue was studied in vitro by a high-speed digital video camera. We used a diode laser with a wavelength of (980 ± 10) nm and average power of 10 W. The diode laser was operated in continuous wave (CW) and pulsed modes. In CW mode, the average laser radiation power was 10 W; in pulsed mode, the average laser radiation power was 10 W and the peak power was 20 W. Diode laser radiation was delivered to soft tissue (chicken meat) using a quartz optical fiber with either a clear distal end (clear tip) or a distal end containing an optothermal converter (hot tip). Application of the diode laser in pulsed mode resulted in crater depths and areas of collateral damage in soft tissue about 1.6 times greater than those observed in CW mode at treatment with the clear tip. Significant differences in the crater depth and collateral damage width of chicken meat were not found after hot-tip treatment with the diode laser in CW and pulsed modes. Soft tissue treated with the hot tip showed crater depths about 3.4 times greater than those observed after treatment with the clear tip. Hot tip treatment further resulted in collateral damage widths about 2.7 times lower than those obtained after treatment with the clear tip.


diode laser thermo-optically powered surgery hot tip surgery laser surgery soft tissue 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rai P K. Lasers in Surgery. In: Rai A K, Das I M L, Uttam K N, eds. Emerging Trends in Laser & Spectroscopy and Applications. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 2010Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen P S, Kuo C Y, Chen H C, Shih C P, Wang C H. Diode laser-assisted excision of glomus tympanicum tumor: do diode lasers help in hemostasis and tumor removal? Journal of Medical Science, 2013, 33(4): 221–224Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rao G, Tripthi P S, Srinivasan K. Haemostatic effect of CO2 laser over excision of an intraoral hemangioma. International Journal of Laser Dentistry, 2012, 2(3): 74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pedrosa A, Santos A, Ferreira M, Araújo C, Barbosa R, Medeiros L. Is carbon dioxide laser vaporization a valuable tool in the management of oral leukoplakia? A survey at an oncology hospital. Lasers in Medical Science, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s10103-014-1551-2Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    He F, Wang Y, Chen W, Zhu Z, Zeng Y, Zhang J, Tang S. Clinical reseach of early laryngocarcinoma treatment by carbon dioxide laser microsurgery. Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology — Head & Neck Surgery, 2014, 28(7): 493–495Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahmed R, Mohammed G, Ismail N, Elakhras A. Randomized clinical trial of CO2 LASER pinpoint irradiation technique versus chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) in treating ice pick acne scars. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, 2014, 16(1): 8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giovannacci I, Vescovi P, Mergoni G, Fornaini C, Bonanini M, Meleti M. Pain and health-related quality of life after oral soft tissue surgical interventions: the advantages of the Nd:YAG laser. Journal of Dentistry Indonesia, 2014, 21(2): 58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanzi E L, Alster T S. Comparison of a 1450-nm diode laser and a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of atrophic facial scars: a prospective clinical and histologic study. Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, 2004, 30(2 Pt 1): 152–157Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kramer MW, Wolters M, Cash H, Jutzi S, Imkamp F, Kuczyk M A, Merseburger A S, Herrmann T R. Current evidence of transurethral Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG treatment of bladder cancer: update 2014. World Journal of Urology, 2015, 33(4): 571–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fornaini C, Raybaud H, Augros C, Rocca J P. New clinical approach for use of Er:YAG laser in the surgical treatment of oral lichen planus: a report of two cases. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 2012, 30(4): 234–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanz-Moliner J D, Nart J, Cohen R E, Ciancio S G. The effect of an 810-nm diode laser on postoperative pain and tissue response after modified Widman flap surgery: a pilot study in humans. Journal of Periodontology, 2013, 84(2): 152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das D, Reed S, Klokkevold P R, Wu B M. A high-throughput comparative characterization of laser-induced soft tissue damage using 3D digital microscopy. Lasers in Medical Science, 2013, 28(2): 657–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beer F, Körpert W, Passow H, Steidler A, Meinl A, Buchmair A G, Moritz A. Reduction of collateral thermal impact of diode laser irradiation on soft tissue due to modified application parameters. Lasers in Medical Science, 2012, 27(5): 917–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Romanos G, Nentwig G H. Diode laser (980 nm) in oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures: clinical observations based on clinical applications. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 1999, 17(5): 193–197Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qafmolla A, Bardhoshi M, Gutknecht N, Bardhoshi E. Evaluation of early and long term results of the treatment of mucocele of the lip using 980 nm diode laser. European Scientific Journal, 2014, 10(6): 334–340Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borchers R. Comparison of diode lasers in soft-tissue surgery using CW-and superpulsed mode: an in vivo study. Dissertation for the Master Degree. Aachen: RWTH Aachen University, 2008, 25–55Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bogdan Allemann I, Goldberg D J, eds. Basics in dermatological laser applications. In: Itin P, Jemec G, eds. Current Problems in Dermatology. Vol 42. Basel: Karger, 2011Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grunewald S, Bodendorf M O, Simon J C, Paasch U. Update dermatologic laser therapy. Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG, 2011, 9(2): 146–159Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vinay Varkey A. Fiber based infrared lasers and their applications in medicine, spectroscopy and metrology. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2013Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Altshuler G B. Thermo-optically powered (TOP) surgery: a new opportunity for the dental practice. In: Proceedings of 19th Annual Conference of the Academy of Laser Dentistry. Scottsdale, 2012Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dental Photonics, Inc. Alta-ST Soft Tissue Surgical Modular System User Manual, 2013, Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bashkatov A N, Genina E A, Kochubey V I, Tuchin V V. Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm. Journal of Physics D, Applied Physics, 2005, 38(15): 2543–2555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vogel A, Venugopalan V. Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues. Chemical Reviews, 2003, 103(2): 577–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roggan A, Friebel M, Doerschel K, Hahn A, Mueller G J. Optical properties of circulating human blood. Proceedings of SPIE, 1998, 3195: 51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bashkatov A N, Genina E A, Tuchin V V. Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: a review. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, 2011, 04(01): 9–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Capon A, Mordon S. Can thermal lasers promote skin wound healing? American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2003, 4(1): 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Skripnik A. Opto-thermal fiber converter of laser radiation. Izvestiya vuzov. Pribiristroenie, 2013, 56(9): 37–42Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Belikov A V, Feldchtein F I, Altshuler G B. Dental surgical laser with feedback mechanisms. Pat. US 2012/0123399 A1/ № 13/ 379,916; appl. 31.12.2010; pub. 17.05. 2 2012Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Altshuler G B, Belikov A V, Skrypnik A V, Feldchtein F. Thermo — optical surgery: a new minimally invasive method of contact soft tissue surgery. Innovative Dentistry, 2012, 1: 2–12Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yusupov V I, Chudnovskii V M, Bagratashvili V N. Laser — induced hydrodynamics in water — saturated biotissues: 1. generation of bubbles in liquid. Laser Physics, 2010, 20(7): 1641–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yusupov V I, Chudnovskii V M, Bagratashvili V N. Laser — induced hydrodynamics in water — saturated biotissues: 2. effect on delivery fiber. Laser Physics, 2011, 21(7): 1230–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bagratashvili V N, Yusupov V I, Chudnovskii V M. Laser — induced hydrodynamics nearby optical fiber tip. In: Proceedings of III International Symposium Topical Problems Of Biophotonics, 2011, 269Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yusupov V I, Chudnovskii VM, Bagratashvili V N. Laser — Induced Hydrodynamics in Water and Biotissues Nearby Optical Fiber Tip. In: Schulz H, ed. Hydrodynamics — Advanced Topics. Croatia: InTech, 2011, 97–119Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beer F, Körpert W, Buchmair A G, Passow H, Meinl A, Heimel P, Moritz A. The influence of water/air cooling on collateral tissue damage using a diode laser with an innovative pulse design (micropulsed mode)-an in vitro study. Lasers in Medical Science, 2013, 28(3): 965–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dasgupta D, Demichelis F, Pirri C F, Tagliaferro A. π bands and gap states from optical absorption and electron-spin-resonance studies on amorphous carbon and amorphous hydrogenated carbon films. Physical Review B: Condensed Matter, 1991, 43(3): 2131–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrey V. Belikov
    • 1
  • Alexei V. Skrypnik
    • 1
  • Ksenia V. Shatilova
    • 1
  1. 1.Saint-Petersburg National Research University of Information TechnologiesMechanics and Optics (ITMO University)Saint-PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations