The associations between lifestyles and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study in Kanazawa, Japan
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The aim of this study was to examine potential differences of the associations between mental health and lifestyle factors across a wide range of age.
In August/September 2011, data were collected from 4693 males (age 51.6 ± 19.5) and 5678 females (age 52.4 ± 19.4) living in Kanazawa, Japan. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with self-administered questionnaire including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12-item version, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Associations between the GHQ scores and other variables were examined using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons and logistic regression stratified by age and gender.
Multiple comparisons indicated that people aged 20–39 or 40–64 had higher GHQ scores than older aged. The two-way ANOVA revealed significant interaction between body mass index and age group, and between exercise and age group. Overweight or underweight males aged 40–64 had poorer mental health than those at normal weight. In the elderly, being underweight was significantly associated with poor mental health. There were no significant effects of exercise on mental health for young adults. The logistic regression showed significant negative effects of short-time sleep in adults.
The associations between mental health and lifestyles differ across age groups. Further study is needed to reveal effects of aging on lifestyle and mental health with a longitudinal design.
KeywordsAging Cross sectional Lifestyle The General Health Questionnaire Mental health
The authors wish to express their gratitude to the leaders and staff of the City of Kanazawa and the neighborhood associations for their support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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