Relationship of toe pinch force to other muscle strength parameters in men with type 2 diabetes

  • Hiroaki KataokaEmail author
  • Nobuyuki Miyatake
  • Naomi Kitayama
  • Satoshi Murao
  • Fumikazu Kohi
  • Satoshi Tanaka
Regular Article



The aim of this study was to explore the relations between toe pinch force and other muscle strength parameters in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


A total of 40 men with type 2 diabetes (age: 53.4 ± 13.1 years, duration of diabetes: 8.5 ± 8.1 years) who needed exercise training were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We evaluated the clinical parameters and 4 muscle strength parameters, which were toe pinch force, handgrip strength, isometric knee extension force, and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force.


The HbA1c, toe pinch force, handgrip strength, isometric knee extension force, and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force were 10.1 ± 2.4 %, 3.2 ± 1.2 kg, 37.3 ± 7.0 kg, 39.6 ± 11.4 kgf, and 17.0 ± 6.3 kgf, respectively. Toe pinch force was significantly correlated with handgrip strength (r = 0.365, p = 0.0206), isometric knee extension force (r = 0.668, p < 0.0001), and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force (r = 0.514, p = 0.0007). All muscle strength parameters were significantly lower in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy than in those without polyneuropathy.


Although toe pinch force was significantly correlated with the other muscle strength parameters, the correlation was not so strong. However, evaluation of toe pinch force might be recommended for assessment of distal limb muscle strength in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus Toe pinch force Handgrip strength Isometric knee extension force Isometric ankle dorsiflexion force 



This study was partly supported by a research grant from 114 Bank (Kagawa, Japan).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest in relation to this study.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Hygiene 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroaki Kataoka
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nobuyuki Miyatake
    • 2
  • Naomi Kitayama
    • 1
  • Satoshi Murao
    • 3
  • Fumikazu Kohi
    • 4
  • Satoshi Tanaka
    • 5
  1. 1.Rehabilitation CenterKKR Takamatsu HospitalTakamatsuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Hygiene, Faculty of MedicineKagawa UniversityMikiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Diabetes and EndocrinologyKKR Takamatsu HospitalTakamatsuJapan
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineKKR Takamatsu HospitalTakamatsuJapan
  5. 5.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health and WelfarePrefectural University of HiroshimaMiharaJapan

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