A rare Asian founder polymorphism of Raptor may explain the high prevalence of Moyamoya disease among East Asians and its low prevalence among Caucasians
- First Online:
- 119 Downloads
In an earlier study, we identified a locus for Moyamoya disease (MMD) on 17q25.3.
Linkage analysis and fine mapping were conducted for two new families in additional to the previously studied 15 families. Three genes, CARD14, Raptor, and AATK, were selected based on key words, namely, “inflammation”, “apoptosis”, “proliferation”, and “vascular system”, for further sequencing. A segregation analysis of 34 pedigrees was performed, followed by a case–control study in Japanese (90 cases vs. 384 controls), Korean (41 cases vs. 223 controls), Chinese (23 cases and 100 controls), and Caucasian (25 cases and 164 controls) populations.
Linkage analysis increased the LOD score from 8.07 to 9.67 on 17q25.3. Fine mapping narrowed the linkage signal to a 2.1-Mb region. Sequencing revealed that only one newly identified polymorphism, ss161110142, which was located at position −1480 from the transcription site of the Raptor gene, was common to all four unrelated sequenced familial affected individuals. ss161110142 was then shown to segregate in the 34 pedigrees studied, resulting in a two-point LOD score of 14.2 (P = 3.89 × 10−8). Its penetrance was estimated to be 74.0%. Among the Asian populations tested (Japanese, Korean, and Chinese), the rare allele was much more frequent in cases (26, 33, and 4%, respectively) than in controls (1, 1, and 0%, respectively) and was associated with an increased odds ratio of 52.2 (95% confidence interval 27.2–100.2) (P = 2.5 × 10−49). This allele was, however, not detected in the Caucasian samples. Its population attributable risk was estimated to be 49% in the Japanese population, 66% in the Korean population, and 9% in the Chinese population.
ss161110142 may confer susceptibility to MMD among East Asian populations.
KeywordsAssociation studies in genetics Cerebral stroke Childhood stroke Genetic linkage Moyamoya disease
- 5.Roach ES, Golomb MR, Adams R, Biller J, Daniels S, de Veber G, et al. Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a Special Writing Group of the American Heart Association Stroke Council and the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Stroke. 2008;39:2644–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Fukui M. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis (‘moyamoya’ disease). Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis (Moyamoya Disease) of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1997;99[Suppl 2]:S238–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, et al. CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family members that interact with BCL10 and activate NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:11877–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Wang Y, Bai Y, Qin L, Zhang P, Yi T, Teesdale SA, et al. Interferon-γ induces human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal expansion by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mammalian target of rapamycin raptor complex 1 activation. Circ Res. 2007;101:560–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar