Advertisement

Journal of Transportation Security

, Volume 11, Issue 3–4, pp 85–100 | Cite as

Participatory Operational & Security Assessment on homeland security risks: an empirical research method for improving security beyond the borders through public/private partnerships

  • Maria G. Burns
Article
  • 111 Downloads

Abstract

This paper proposes novel applications of Participatory Operational Assessment (POA), as a qualitative/empirical tool for bridging the research gap in our knowledge of Border Security, while supporting the mission of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security “to build in security, to ensure resilience, and to facilitate customs and exchange” (DHS 2017). Each year, global trade volume exceeds 10.3 billion tons of cargo, 90% of which is being carried by ships (UNCTAD 2017). U.S. transport networks alone import and export at least two billion metric tons of cargo, including 15 million sealed containers (CBP 2017a). The task of DHS/CBP in safeguarding the national borders and intermodal (sea, land & air) security becomes more crucial each year, as the flow of goods grows exponentially in positive correlation with the population growth, and trade agreements, such as the NAFTA agreement between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. This paper demonstrates the development of a “Participatory Operational Assessment” instrument, where homeland security officials and industry stakeholders form a think-tank for resolving security and operational challenges on both sides of the border. Specifically, this scholarly research funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security demonstrates the benefits of establishing a Public/Private Advisory Board in order to identify security threats on both sides of the border. This is a timely research, as border security risks impose serious threats for homeland security, with geopolitical, economic and trade hindrances. The DHS and its Agencies (CBP, USCG, TSA etc.) have introduced numerous noteworthy initiatives, platforms and programs, including CSI, C-TPAT, TWIC etc. A number of working groups are also affiliated with the DHS, in order to address security, trade and travel issues. Inspired by the capabilities of these initiatives, this research has created a project-specific team of experts aiming to evaluate quantitative findings on border security, and offer best industry practices.

Keywords

Homeland security, border security DHS CBP ICE Participatory Security Assessment (PSA) Participatory Operational Assessment (POA) Public/private partnerships Risk assessment Risk management Port of Entry (PoE) Globalization Supply chain security Public and private stakeholders Root cause analysis Problem solving 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Grant Award Number DHS-14-ST-061-COE-00. This grant is awarded to the Borders, Trade, and Immigration (BTI) Institute: A DHS Center of Excellence led by the University of Houston, and includes support for the project “Participatory Operational Assessment (POA): Evaluating and predicting the operational effectiveness of Cargo Security Processes at Ports of Entry” awarded to the University of Houston. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

***

The Journal of Transportation Security acknowledges that the Author retains the right to provide a final copy of the final manuscript or software application to DHS upon acceptance for journal Publication or thereafter, for public access purposes through DHS’s websites and for public archiving purposes.

References

  1. Basu G (2013) The role of transnational smuggling operations in illicit supply chains. J Transp Secur 6:315–328.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-013-0118-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basu G (2014) The strategic attributes of transnational smuggling: logistics flexibility and operational stealth in the facilitation of illicit trade. J Transp Secur 7:99–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-013-0132-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Böhle C, Hellingrath B, Deuter P (2014) Towards process reference models for secure supply chains. J Transp Secur 7:255–276.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-014-0142-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burns MG (2013a) Estimating the impact of maritime security: financial tradeoffs between security and efficiency. J Transp Secur 6(4):329–338.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-013-0119-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burns MG (2013b) Strategic environmental assessment in the offshore industry: an econometric and empirical study, the 18th Offshore Symposium: Engineering The Future: The Arctic and Beyond, Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers, 2013Google Scholar
  6. Burns MG (2014a) Port management and operations, 1st edn. CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, USA (July 21, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns M (2014b) Building resilient supply chains through policies, Partnerships and Technologies DHS Supply Chain Security Workshop, Houston April 23, 2014Google Scholar
  8. Burns MG (2015) Logistics and transportation security: a strategic, tactical, and operational guide to resilience, 1st edn. CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, USA (October 22, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burns MG (2017) Cyber Security Conference Proceedings. Annual Mare Forum in Houston, TexasGoogle Scholar
  10. CBP (2017a) CBP Leadership, Securing America’s Borders. Official website of the Customs & Border Protection Agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Available at: http://www.cbp.gov/about/leadership/assistant-commissioners-offices. Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  11. CBP (2017b) CBP, Locate a Port of Entry. Official website of the Customs & Border Protection Agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Available at: https://www.cbp.gov/contact/ports Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  12. DHS (2017) DHS, Our Mission. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Available at: https://www.dhs.gov/our-mission, Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  13. FBI (2018) Cargo theft data. Available at: https://www.fbi.gov/audio-repository/news-podcasts-thisweek-cargo-theft.mp3/view, Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  14. Hamza FR, Priotti J-P (2018) Maritime trade and piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean (1994–2017). J Transp Secur.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-018-0190-4
  15. ICC-CCS (2017) Annual IMB Piracy Report. Available at: https://www.icc-ccs.org/reports/2017-Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report.pdf, Last accessed in May 12, 2018
  16. International Labor Organization - ILO (2018) Forced labor, modern slavery and human trafficking. Landmark forced labor protocol enters into force. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang--en/index.htm Last accessed in May 3, 2018
  17. International Labor Organization - IMO (2017) Annual Report 2017, International Labor Organization. Available at: www.imo.org, Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  18. Morgan S (2017) Cybercrime Report, Cybersecurity ventures, 2017. Available at: https://cybersecurityventures.com/hackerpocalypse-cybercrime-report-2016/, Last accessed in May 12, 2018
  19. Morgan S CSO (2018) Top Cybersecurity facts, figures and statistics for 2018. CSO from IDG. Available at: https://www.csoonline.com/article/3153707/security/top-5-cybersecurity-facts-figures-and-statistics.html, Last accessed in May 12, 2018
  20. National ISACs (2018) National council of ISACs. Latest news about NCI and ISACs. Available at: https://www.nationalisacs.org/. Last accessed in June 5, 2018
  21. Okeahalam C, Otwombe K (2016) Socioeconomic development and the risk of maritime piracy. J Transp Secur 9:125–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-016-0171-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Statista Portal (2016–2018) Statista, the statistics portal. Available at: https://www.statista.com/ Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  23. U.S. Treasury Department (2015) National Money Laundering Risk Assessment, 2015 Report. Available at: https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/terrorist-illicit-finance/Documents/National%20Money%20Laundering%20Risk%20Assessment%20%E2%80%93%2006-12-2015.pdf, Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  24. UNCTAD (2017) Review of maritime transport, 2017. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Available at: http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2017_en.pdf. Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  25. UNHCR ( 2006) Steps for conducting participatory assessment. Overview. The UNHCR Tool For Participatory Assessment In Operations. UNHCR. Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/the-unhcr-tool-for-participatory-assessment-in-operations-steps-for-conducting-participatory-assessment-overview/ Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  26. UNHCR (2007) Participatory assessment in operations. The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR). Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/450e920e2.html Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  27. UNICEF (2007) Violence against children – Looking beyond experience. Introduction to the Participatory Assessment Tool. A simple easy to use Tool Kit to research and document violence against children in Protective Environments. UNICEF. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/violencestudy/pdf/Introduction%20UNICEF%20Participatory%20Assessment%20Tool-04.07.pdf , Last accessed in August 12, 2017
  28. UNODC (2017) World Drug Report 2017: 29.5 million people globally suffer from drug use disorders, opioids the most harmful. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/press/releases/2017/June/world-drug-report-2017_-29-5-million-people-globally-suffer-from-drug-use-disorders--opioids-the-most-harmful.html, Last accessed in June 1, 2018
  29. Vlkovský M, Ivanuša T, Neumann V, Foltin P, Vlachová H (2017) Optimizating cargo security during transport using dataloggers. J Transp Secur 10(1–9):63–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-017-0179-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations