C. sakazakii activates AIM2 pathway accompanying with excessive ER stress response in mammalian mammary gland epithelium
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Bovine mastitis is a common inflammatory disease caused by various factors. The main factor of mastitis is pathogenic microorganism infection, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is a newly discovered pathogenic bacteria in milk products, which seriously threat human health in recent years. At present, it has not been reported that the pathogenesis of mastitis is caused by C. sakazakii. This study investigated the inflammation of mammary gland epithelium, which was induced by C. sakazakii for the first time. We focused on bacterial isolation, histological observation, AIM2 inflammasome pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis. The results showed that C. sakazakii–induced inflammation caused damage of tissue, significantly increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), activated the AIM2 inflammasome pathway (increased the expression of AIM2 and cleaved IL-1β), and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (increased the expression of ERdj4, Chop, Grp78) and apoptosis (increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, a marker of apoptosis). In conclusion, it is suggested that it maybe inhibite AIM2 inflammasome pathways and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) against the C. sakazakii–induced inflammation.
KeywordsCronobacter sakazakii AIM2 inflammasome ER stress Apoptosis
This study was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31970413), National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC1200201), and Start-up grant from Nanjing Agricultural University (Grant No. 804090).
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