Identification and expression analysis of multiple small heat shock protein genes in spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (L.)
Fifteen small heat shock protein (sHSP) genes were identified from spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (L.), an important native forest pest in North America. The transcript levels of each CfHSP were measured under non-stress conditions in all life stages from egg to adult and in five different larval tissues. CfHSP transcript levels showed variation during development, with highest levels in adults and lowest in eggs. Most CfHSP transcripts are highly expressed in larval fat body and Malpighian tubules; two CfHSPs display extremely high expression in the head and epidermis. Upon heat stress, nine CfHSP genes are significantly upregulated, increasing by 50- to 2500-fold depending on developmental stage and tissue type. Upon starvation, eight CfHSPs are upregulated or downregulated, whereas six others retain constant expression. These results suggest that CfHSPs have important and multiple roles in spruce budworm development and in response to heat stress and starvation.
KeywordsSpruce budworm sHSP Chaperone Expression profiles Heat stress Starvation
We greatly thank William Fick for his editorial assistance, two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, and Insect Production Services at Great Lake Forestry Centre for providing the insect materials. This work was supported by grants from the Genomics Research and Development Initiative (GRDI) and Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada.
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