Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in insulin resistance and improve the cellular stress response via HSP induction by exercise to treat type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of exercise-induced HSP72 expression levels on whole-body insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Male 25-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (Sed), trained in a thermal-neutral environment (NTr: 25 °C), and trained in a cold environment (CTr: 4 °C). Exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Rectal temperature was measured following each bout of exercise. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after the training sessions. The serum, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver were sampled 48 h after the final exercise session. HSP72 and heat shock cognate protein 73 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot, and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured. NTr animals exhibited significantly higher body temperatures following exercise, whereas, CTr animals did not. Exercise training increased HSP72 levels in the gastrocnemius muscle and liver, whereas, HSP72 expression was significantly lower in the CTr group than that in the NTr group (p < 0.05). Glucose tolerance improved equally in both trained animals; however, insulin levels during the IPGTT were higher in CTr animals than those in NTr animals (p < 0.05). In addition, the TG and FFA levels decreased significantly only in NTr animals compared with those in Sed animals. These results suggest that attenuation of exercise-induced HSP72 expression partially blunts improvement in whole-body insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.
Type 2 diabetes Insulin resistance Exercise training Heat shock protein Body temperature
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This study was supported in part by the MEXT-supported program for Juntendo University and a grant-in-aid for JSPS fellows (13J10819, to T.T.). The Juntendo University Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine also supported this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures were approved by the Juntendo University Animal Care and Use Committee (H24-01).
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