Advertisement

Linking Trait Mindfulness to Life Satisfaction in Adolescents: the Mediating Role of Resilience and Self-Esteem

  • Kaifeng Wang
  • Feng KongEmail author
Article
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

This paper’s objective was to explore the relationships among mindfulness, resilience, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in two independent samples of Chinese adolescents. Study 1 surveyed 467 adolescents (154 boys; mean age: 16.12 ± .86 years) through self-administered questionnaires comprising the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MASS), The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale(CD-RISC), and Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS). The correlation analysis demonstrated that mindfulness, self-esteem, resilience and life satisfaction positively correlated with each other. Results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that mindfulness predicted life satisfaction through two pathways. On the one hand, mindfulness predicted life satisfaction through the mediating effect of self-esteem (indirect effect = .04; 95% CI: .02–.07). On the other hand, mindfulness predicted life satisfaction through the chain mediating effect of resilience and self-esteem (indirect effect = .03; 95% CI: .02–.05). In addition, none of the mediated effects differed by gender. To test whether the results reported here are stable and replicable, we further conducted a validation study in sample 2 (N = 630; 270 boys; mean age: 15.22 ± .59 years) and found all the results remained significant. Together, these findings explain a possible process by which mindfulness enhances life satisfaction.

Keywords

Mindfulness Self-esteem Resilience Life satisfaction Adolescents 

Notes

Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31800942), the Young Talent fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi, China (20180206), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (GK201903106).

References

  1. Abolghasemi, A., & Varaniyab, S. T. (2010). Resilience and perceived stress: Predictors of life satisfaction in the students of success and failure. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 748–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52(3), 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice : A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbuckle, J. L. (2003). AMOS 5.0 update to the AMOS user’s guide. Chicago: Saltwater.Google Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., & Williams, J. M. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajaj, B., & Pande, N. (2016). Mediating role of resilience in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and affect as indices of subjective well-being. Personality & Individual Differences, 93(4), 63–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benetti, C., & Kambouropoulos, N. (2006). Affect-regulated indirect effects of trait anxiety and trait resilience on self-esteem. Personality & Individual Differences, 41(2), 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biegel, G., Brown, K., Shapiro, S., & Schubert, C. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 855–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. Measures of Personality & Social Psychological Attitudes, 1(1), 115–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bollen, K. A., & Stine, R. A. (1992). Bootstrapping goodness-of-fit measures in structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brief, A. P., Butcher, A. H., George, J. M., & Link, K. E. (1993). Integrating bottom-up and top-down theories of subjective well-being: The case of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 646–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, K. W., West, A. M., Loverich, T. M., & Biegel, G. M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: Validation of an adapted mindful attention awareness scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1023–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing equation model fit. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Buckner, J. C., Mezzacappa, E., & Beardslee, W. R. (2003). Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: The role of self-regulatory processes. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 139–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S. L., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 585–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Conway, A. M., & Mikels, J. A. (2009). Hapiness unpacked: Positive emotion increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression & Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  22. Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deng, Y. Q., Li, S., Tang, Y. Y., Zhu, L. H., Ryan, R., & Brown, K. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the mindful attention awareness scale (MAAS). Mindfulness, 3(1), 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, A., & Griffin, R. (1985). The satisfactions with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.Google Scholar
  25. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 403–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Du, H., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Yeung, S. S. (2015). Locus-of-hope and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of personal self-esteem and relational self-esteem. Personality & Individual Differences, 83, 228–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duarte, J., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2017). Mindfulness, self-compassion and psychological inflexibility mediate the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention in a sample of oncology nurses. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 6(2), 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dumont, M., & Provost, M. A. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 28(3), 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein, R. M., & Krasner, M. S. (2013). Physician resilience: What it means, why it matters, and how to promote it. Academic Medicine Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 88(3), 301–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feddes, A. R., Mann, L., & Doosje, B. (2015). Increasing self-esteem and empathy to prevent violent radicalization: A longitudinal quantitative evaluation of a resilience training focused on adolescents with a dual identity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45(7), 400–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Germer, C. K., Siegel, R. D., & Fulton, P. R. (2005). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Goldbeck, L., Schmitz, T. G., Besier, T., Herschbach, P., & Henrich, G. (2007). Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence. Quality of Life Research, 16(6), 969–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hau, K. T., & Marsh, H. W. (2004). The use of item parcels in structural equation modelling: Non-normal data and small sample sizes. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 57(2), 327–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Henriksson, J., Wasara, E., & Rönnlund, M. (2016). Effects of eight-week-web-based mindfulness training on pain intensity, pain acceptance, and life satisfaction in individuals with chronic pain. Psychological Reports, 119(3), 586–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 537–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go there you are. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  38. Keng, S. L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keye, M. D., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2013). Investigation of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and academic self-efficacy. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 1(06), 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kong, F., & You, X. (2013). Loneliness and self-esteem as mediators between social support and life satisfaction in late adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kong, F., Ding, K., Yang, Z., Dang, X., Hu, S., Song, Y., & Liu, J. (2015a). Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 952–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kong, F., Ding, K., & Zhao, J. (2015b). The relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, social support and life satisfaction among undergraduate students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(2), 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kong, F., Wang, X., Hu, S., & Liu, J. (2015c). Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. Neuroimage, 123, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kong, F., Ma, X., You, X., & Xiang, Y. (2018). The resilient brain: Psychological resilience mediates the effect of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in orbitofrontal cortex on subjective well-being in young healthy adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 755–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kong, F., Gong, X., Sajjad, S., Yang, K., & Zhao, J. (2019). How is emotional intelligence linked to life satisfaction? The mediating role of social support, positive affect and negative affect. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(8), 2733–2745.Google Scholar
  46. Kwak, S., Lee, T. Y., Jung, W. H., Hur, J.-W., Bae, D., Hwang, W. J., et al. (2019). The immediate and sustained positive effects of meditation on resilience are mediated by changes in the resting brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 101.Google Scholar
  47. Liu, Y., Wang, Z., & Lü, W. (2013). Resilience and affect balance as mediators between trait emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality & Individual Differences, 54(7), 850–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Zhou, C., & Li, T. (2014). Affect and self-esteem as mediators between trait resilience and psychological adjustment. Personality & Individual Differences, 66(8), 92–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lpc, M. S. E., & Dolbier, C. (2008). Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and protective factors and decrease symptomatology. Journal of American College Health, 56(4), 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mackenzie, C. S., Poulin, P. A., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (2006). A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Applied Nursing Research, 19(2), 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mak, W. W., Ng, I. S., & Wong, C. C. (2011). Resilience: Enhancing well-being through the positive cognitive triad. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 610–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mardia, K.V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57(3), 519–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meredith, S. (2015). Effects of mindfulness training on cognition and well-being in healthy older adults. Mindfulness, 7(2), 1–13.Google Scholar
  54. Moksnes, U. K., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents-gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2921–2928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pallozzi, R., Wertheim, E., Paxton, S., & Ong, B. (2017). Trait mindfulness measures for use with adolescents: A systematic review. Mindfulness, 8(1), 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Patil, P., Peng, R. D., & Leek, J. T. (2016). What should researchers expect when they replicate studies? A statistical view of Replicability in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 539–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., & Davis, P. J. (2013). The positive effects of mindfulness on self-esteem. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(5), 376–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Poulin, P. A., Mackenzie, C. S., Soloway, G., & Karayolas, E. (2008). Mindfulness training as an evidenced-based approach to reducing stress and promoting well-being among human services professionals. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 46(2), 72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prazak, M., Critelli, J., Martin, L., Miranda, V., Purdum, M., & Powers, C. (2012). Mindfulness and its role in physical and psychological health. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 4(1), 91–105.Google Scholar
  60. Rasmussen, M. K., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2011). The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety. Anxiety Stress & Coping, 24(2), 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ree, M. J., & Craigie, M. A. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behaviour Change, 24(2), 70–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richardson, G. E., & Waite, P. J. (2002). Mental health promotion through resilience and resiliency education. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4(1), 65–75.Google Scholar
  63. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and THE adolescent self-image:SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rouse, K. G., Ingersoll, G. M., & Orr, D. P. (1998). Longitudinal health endangering behavior risk among resilient and nonresilient early adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 23(5), 297–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Salami, S. O. (2010). Moderating effects of resilience, self-esteem and social support on adolescents’ reactions to violence. Asian Social Science, 6(12), 101–110.Google Scholar
  66. Senders, A., Bourdette, D., Hanes, D., Yadav, V., & Shinto, L. (2014). Perceived stress in multiple sclerosis: The potential role of mindfulness in health and wellbeing. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine, 19(2), 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stolarski, M., Vowinckel, J., Jankowski, K. S., & Zajenkowski, M. (2016). Mind the balance, be contented: Balanced time perspective mediates the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 27–31.Google Scholar
  68. Tan, J., Yang, W., Ma, H., & Yu, Y. (2016). Adolescents' Core self-evaluations as mediators of the effect of mindfulness on life satisfaction. Social Behavior & Personality, 44(7), 1115–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson, R. W., Arnkoff, D. B., & Glass, C. R. (2011). Conceptualizing mindfulness and acceptance as components of psychological resilience to trauma. Trauma Violence Abuse, 12(4), 220–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walsh, F. (2016). Family resilience: A developmental systems framework. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(3), 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang, Y., & Kong, F. (2014). The role of emotional intelligence in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and mental distress. Social Indicators Research, 116(3), 843–852.Google Scholar
  73. Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 566–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zenner, C., Herrnlebenkurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations