Child Indicators Research

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1935–1949 | Cite as

Gender, Age and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: a Comparison Between Spain and Mexico

  • Igor EsnaolaEmail author
  • Manuel Benito
  • Iratxe Antonio-Agirre
  • Eloisa Ballina
  • Margarita Lorenzo


The purpose of the study was to explore latent mean differences regarding country, gender and age in life satisfaction. The sample was composed by 701 adolescents (Mage = 14.93, SD = 1.83) from Spain (74.2%) and Mexico (25.8%). Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance. To compare groups two methods were used: (1) fitting two models and running an Anova; and (2) the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes Model (MIMIC) which links an observed covariate (country, gender and age) with a latent variable such as the SWLS score. Results supported a single-factor structure. The internal consistency of the SWLS, and the tests of measurement invariance supported its strict invariance regarding country and gender, and strong invariance regarding age. Latent mean differences showed better perceptions in life satisfaction for males and the youngest, while no cross-cultural differences were found between adolescents from Spain and Mexico.


Life satisfaction Adolescence Measurement equivalence Confirmatory factor analysis Cross-cultural studies Gender 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicting Interests

The authors declare that they have no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UPV/EHUDonostia-San SebastiánSpain
  2. 2.Department of Development and Educational Psychology. Faculty of Education, Philosophy and AnthropologyUniversity of the Basque CountrySan SebastiánSpain
  3. 3.Colegio Nuestro MundoXalapa-VeracruzMexico
  4. 4.Centro Superior de Música del País Vasco (Musikene)San SebastiánSpain

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