Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1881–1896 | Cite as

How Income Inequality and Immigrant Background Affect children’s Use of Mental Healthcare Services in Oslo, Norway

  • Jon Erik FinnvoldEmail author
Article
  • 113 Downloads

Abstract

During the last decade, Norway has experienced a major increase in permanent poverty among children. Although income inequality among Norwegian families is ranked as the lowest in Europe, the capital city of Oslo is characterized by significant differences in income across and within city districts. This paper analyses the degree to which utilization of specialized mental health services among children and adolescents is influenced by low-income and geographical-income inequality. In particular, do these factors affect immigrant children differently than they do native children? The data include the total population of children and adolescents with a native or non-Western background residing in Oslo (N = 121,449), in addition to register data covering all contacts with specialized mental healthcare institutions during the years 2008–2011 (N = 446,440). Multivariate logistic regression and Poisson regression were applied to analyse variations in rates of mental health care utilization. Non-Western children had significantly lower rates of utilization than their native peers, with the exception of a small minority of children residing in city districts with high levels of income inequality. For native children, there appears to be an inverse relationship between living in an area of income inequality and mental healthcare utilization: living in city districts with high income inequality to some extent lowers the probability of having contact with mental healthcare services. The results are discussed, involving factors such as underutilization, ethnic density effects, and selection processes that influence who becomes poor.

Keywords

Norway Childhood poverty Immigrant background Income inequality Mental health Psychiatric care 

Notes

References

  1. Archambault, I., Janosz, M., Dupéré, V., Brault, M. C., & Andrew, M. M. (2017). Individual, social, and family factors associated with high school dropout among low-SES youth: Differential effects as a function of immigrant status. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 456–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, Z., & Crawford, C. A. G. (2012). The role of geographic scale in testing the income inequality hypothesis as an explanation of health disparities. Social Science & Medicine, 75(6), 1022–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clough-Gorr, K. M., Egger, M., & Spoerri, A. (2015). A Swiss paradox? Higher income inequality of municipalities is associated with lower mortality in Switzerland. European Journal of Epidemiology, 30(8), 627–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colucci, E., Szwarc, J., Minas, H., Paxton, G., & Guerra, C. (2014). The utilisation of mental health services by children and young people from a refugee background: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 7(1), 86–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Comeau, J., & Boyle, M. H. (2018). Patterns of poverty exposure and children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. SSM-population health, 4, 86–94.Google Scholar
  7. Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2010). Microeconometrics using stata (Vol. 2). College Station: Stata press.Google Scholar
  8. Craig, N. (2005). Exploring the generalisability of the association between income inequality and self-assessed health. Social Science & Medicine, 60(11), 2477–2488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elgar, F. J., Gariépy, G., Torsheim, T., & Currie, C. (2017). Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 174, 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elstad, J. I, Finnvold J.E., & Texmon, I. (2015). Use of hospitals and other specialized medical services among immigrants and non-immigrants in Norway. Oslo: NOVA Rapport nr.Google Scholar
  11. Feliciano, C., & Lanuza, Y. R. (2017). An immigrant paradox? Contextual attainment and intergenerational educational mobility. American Sociological Review, 82(1), 211–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flouri, E., Midouhas, E., & Ruddy, A. (2016). Socio–economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects. Health & Place, 37, 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fuglerud, Ø., Engebrigtsen, A., & Bakken, A. (2004). Somalisk og tamilsk ungdom. Migrasjon og tilpasningsprosesser. (Somali and tamil adolescents. Migration and acculturation prosesses. In Ø. Fuglerud (Ed.), Andre bilder av" de andre": Transnasjonale liv i Norge (other portrayals of "the others": Transnational lives in Norway). Oslo: Pax Forlag A/S.Google Scholar
  14. Garratt, E. A., Chandola, T., Purdam, K., & Wood, A. M. (2017). Income and social rank influence UK Children's behavioral problems: A longitudinal analysis. Child Development, 88(4), 1302–1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerdtham, U.-G., & Johannesson, M. (2004). Absolute income, relative income, income inequality, and mortality. Journal of Human Resources, 39(1), 228–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gieling, M., Vollebergh, W., & van Dorsselaer, S. (2010). Ethnic density in school classes and adolescent mental health. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(6), 639–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodman, A., Patel, V., & Leon, D. A. (2008). Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 8(1), 258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jackson, M. I., Kiernan, K., & McLanahan, S. (2012). Immigrant–native differences in child health: Does maternal education narrow or widen the gap? Child Development, 83(5), 1501–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kirkeberg, M. I., & Epland, J. (2016). Barnefamilienes inntekter, formue og gjeld (Child families' income, assets and liabilities) 2004–2014. Rapporter 2016/11, Statistics Norway.Google Scholar
  20. Kondo, N., Sembajwe, G., Kawachi, I., van Dam, R. M., Subramanian, S., & Yamagata, Z. (2009). Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: Meta-analysis of multilevel studies. BMJ, 339(339), b4471.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b4471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kouider, E. B., Koglin, U., & Petermann, F. (2014). Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in Europe: A systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(6), 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lorgelly, P. K., & Lindley, J. (2008). What is the relationship between income inequality and health? Evidence from the BHPS. Health Economics, 17(2), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McLeod, C. B., Lavis, J. N., Mustard, C. A., & Stoddart, G. L. (2003). Income inequality, household income, and health status in Canada: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(8), 1287–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mistry, R. S., Brown, C. S., White, E. S., Chow, K. A., & Gillen-O'Neel, C. (2015). Elementary school children's reasoning about social class: A mixed-methods study. Child Development, 86(5), 1653–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mood, C., Jonsson, J. O., & Låftman, S. B. (2016). Immigrant integration and youth mental health in four European countries. European Sociological Review, 32(6), 716–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2007). Child wellbeing and income inequality in rich societies: Ecological cross sectional study. BMJ, 335(7629), 1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015a). The ethical and policy implications of research on income inequality and child well-being. Pediatrics, 135(Supplement 2), S39–S47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015b). Income inequality and health: A causal review. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pohlmeier, W., & Ulrich, V. (1995). An econometric model of the two-part decisionmaking process in the demand for health care. Journal of Human Resources, 30, 339–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pumariega, A. J., Rothe, E., & Pumariega, J. B. (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(5), 581–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rostila, M., Kölegård, M. L., & Fritzell, J. (2012). Income inequality and self-rated health in Stockholm, Sweden: A test of the ‘income inequality hypothesis’ on two levels of aggregation. Social Science & Medicine, 74(7), 1091–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sturm, R., & Gresenz, C. R. (2002). Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: National survey. BMJ, 324(7328), 1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7328.20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thévenot, C. (2017). Inequality in OECD countries. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45(18_suppl), 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thijs, J., & Verkuyten, M. (2008). Peer victimization and academic achievement in a multiethnic sample: The role of perceived academic self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 754–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Toczydlowska, E., Chzhen, Y., Bruckauf, Z., & Handa, S. (2016). Income inequality among children in europe 2008–2013. Florence: Innocenti Working Paper No. 2016-15, UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
  38. Wen, M., Browning, C. R., & Cagney, K. A. (2003). Poverty, affluence, and income inequality: Neighborhood economic structure and its implications for health. Social Science & Medicine, 57(5), 843–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wessel, T. (2000). Social polarisation and socioeconomic segregation in a welfare state: The case of Oslo. Urban Studies, 37(11), 1947–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. E. (2006). Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence. Social Science & Medicine, 62(7), 1768–1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level: Why more equal societies almost always do better (Vol. 6). London: JSTOR.Google Scholar
  42. Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J. L., & Beardslee, W. R. (2012). The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: Implications for prevention. American Psychologist, 67(4), 272–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zachrisson, H. D., & Dearing, E. (2015). Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway. Child Development, 86(2), 425–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Social Research (NOVA)Oslo Metropolitan UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations