Ecological Factors of Being Bullied Among Adolescents: a Classification and Regression Tree Approach
- 363 Downloads
Being bullied is a well-recognized trauma for adolescents. Bullying can best be understood through an ecological framework since bullying or being bullied involves risk factors at multiple contextual levels. The purpose of the study was to identify the risk and protective factors that best differentiate groups along with the outcome variable of interest (being bullied) using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. The study used the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) data collected from a nationally representative sample of students in grades six through ten during the 2005–2006 school years. This study identified that for adolescents 12 and younger, lower parental support is a critical risk factor associated with bullying and among those 13 to 14 with lower parent support, adolescent with higher academic pressure reported experiencing more bullying. For the older group of adolescents (aged 15 and older), school related factors were identified to increase the risk level of being bullied. There was a critical age (15 years old) for implementing victimization interventions to reduce the damage from being bullied. Service providers working with adolescents aged 14 and less should focus more on family-oriented intervention and those working with adolescents aged 15 and more should offer peer- or school-related interventions.
KeywordsBeing bullied Bullying Ecological risk factors CART Adolescents
This study was financially supported by Namseoul University. Kristen Seay is the recipient of training fellowships from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (F31DA034442, K. Seay, PI; 5T32DA015035).
- Batsche, G., & Knoff, H. (1994). Bullies and their victims: understanding a pervasive problem in the schools. School Psychology Review, 23, 165–75.Google Scholar
- Bowes, L., Maughan, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Arseneault, L. (2010). Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 51(7), 809–817.Google Scholar
- Breiman, L., Fiedman, J., Stone, C. J., & Olshen, R. A. (1984). Classification and regression trees. Oxford: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Cantone, E., Piras, A. P., Vellante, M., Preti, A., Daníelsdóttir, S., D’Aloja, E., … Bhugra, D. (2015). Interventions on bullying and cyberbullying in schools: a systematic review. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH, 11(Suppl 1 M4), 58–76. doi: 10.2174/1745017901511010058.
- D’Antona, R., Kevorkian, M., & Russom, A. (2010). Sexting, texting, cyberbullying and keeping youth safe online. Journal of Social Science, 6, 521–526.Google Scholar
- Flouri, E., & Buchanan, A. (2003). The role of father involvement and mother involvement in adolescents' psychological well-being. British Journal Of Social Work, 33(3), 399–406.Google Scholar
- National School Climate Center (2015). Measuring school climate. Retrived October 8, 2015, from http://www.schoolclimate.org/climate/practice.php.
- NCH (2005). Putting u in the picture: Mobile phone bullying survey 2005. Retrieved from http://www.filemaker.co.uk/educationcentre/downloads/articles/Mobile_bullying_report.pdf.
- Robers, S., Zhang, J., and Truman, J. Snyder, T. D. (2012). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2011 (NCES 2012-002/NCJ 236021). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Salford Systems. (2008). CART 6.0 User’s Guide. Available at http://dist.salford-systems.com/CART6/CART6.pdf
- Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (2008). Bully victims: psychological and somatic aftermaths. Psychiatry, 5(6), 62–64.Google Scholar
- Smith, P. K., Shu, S., & Madsen, K. (2001). Characteristics of victims of schoolbullying: developmental changes in copingstrategies ands skills. In J. Juoven and S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment at school: the plight of the vulnerable and victimised (pp. 332–352). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Stephens, R. D. (1994). Planning for safer and better schools: School violence prevention and intervention strategies. School Psychology Review, 23, 204–215.Google Scholar
- Storch, E., Brassard, M., & Masia-Warner, C. (2003). The relationship of peer victimization to social anxiety and loneliness in adolescence. Child Study Journal, 33, 1–18.Google Scholar
- Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. Journal Of Pediatric Psychology, 35(10), 1103–1112.Google Scholar