Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 699–715 | Cite as

Hope in Early Adolescence: Measuring Internal and External Locus-of-Hope

  • Allan B. I. BernardoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Hope is known to be an important predictor of wellbeing, especially in young people. The current study draws from the locus-of-hope model, which proposes internal and external locus-of-hope dimensions. External locus-of-hope refers hopeful thoughts based on conjoint forms of agency that relate to other persons and external forces, which are distinct forms of hopeful thoughts compared to dispositional hope that is typically measured in the research literature. Data were gathered from 825 young adolescents (ages 12–15) from the Philippines who completed the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit between the four-factor model of locus-of-hope and the data. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis further indicated strong measurement invariance across boys and girls. The young adolescent sample reported higher external-family and external spiritual locus-of-hope thoughts compared to the internal and external-peer locus-of-hope, and girls reported higher hope in the first two dimensions, as well. Internal and external-spiritual locus-of-hope also increased in the later years (14 & 15). The results are discussed in terms of how hopeful thoughts may be shaped by developmental processes that relate to broader culture-specific societal processes and orientations.

Keywords

Hope Locus-of-hope Confirmatory factor analysis Invariance analysis Early adolescence Sex differences 

References

  1. Abad, R. G. (1995). Filipino religiosity: Some international comparisons. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, 43(2), 195–212.Google Scholar
  2. Abad, R. G. (2012). Religion in the Philippines. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, 49(3), 337–367.Google Scholar
  3. Adelabu, D. H. (2008). Future time perspective, hope, and ethnic identity among African American adolescents. Urban Education, 43(3), 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Sesma, A., Jr., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2005). Adolescent spirituality. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 25–40). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, C. J., Rapoff, M. A., Snyder, C. R., & Belmont, J. M. (2007). The relationship of children’s hope to pediatric asthma treatment adherence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 944–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Hope grounded in belief: Direct and indirect influence of social axioms on dispositional hope. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54, 522–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernardo, A.B..I., & Estrellado,A.S. (2014). Measuring hope in the Philippines: Validating the short version of the Locus-of-Hope Scale in Filipino. Social Indicators Research. Published online January 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0573-7.
  11. Bernardo, A. B. I., Lising, R. H., & Shulruf, B. (2013). Validity of two language versions of the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale with Filipino-English bilinguals. Psychological Studies, 58, 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernardo, A.B..I., Clemente, J.A.R., & Liem, G.A. (2014). Describing the values of Filipino adolescents: Comparison with pan-cultural norms. Journal of Tropical Psychology (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2001). Home environment and behavioral development during early adolescence: The mediating and moderating roles of self-efficacy beliefs. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 47, 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modelling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Cartland, J., Ruch-Ross, H. S., & Henry, D. B. (2003). Feeling at home in one’s school: A first look at new measure. Adolescence, 38, 305–319.Google Scholar
  16. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., & Davies, F. (2007). The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(6), 1161–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cruz, G. T., Laguna, E. P., & Raymundo, C. M. (2002). Family influences on the lifestyle of the Filipino youth. Philippine Population Review, 1, 39–63.Google Scholar
  19. Dimitrov, D. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, 121–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dowling, E. M., Gestsdottir, S., Anderson, P. M., von Eye, A., Almerigi, J., & Lerner, R. M. (2004). Structural relations among spirituality, religiosity, and thriving in adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Du, H., & King, R. B. (2013). Placing hope in self and others: Exploring the relationship among self-construals, locus-of-hope, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 332–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DuBois, D. L., Burk-Braxton, C., Swenson, L. P., Tevendale, H. D., Lockerd, E. M., & Moran, B. L. (2002). Getting by with a little help from self and others: Self-esteem and social support as resources during early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 38, 822–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(2), 166–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Good, M., & Willoughby, T. (2008). Adolescence as a sensitive period for spiritual development. Child Development Perspectives, 2(1), 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hagen, K. A., Myers, B. J., & Mackintosh, V. H. (2005). Hope, social support, and behavioral problems in at‐risk children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(2), 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heaven, P., & Ciarrochi, J. (2008). Parental styles, gender and the development of hope and self‐esteem. European Journal of Personality, 22(8), 707–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jenkins, S. R., Goodness, K., & Buhrmester, D. (2002). Gender differences in early adolescents’ relationship qualities, self-efficacy, and depression symptoms. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 277–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiang, X., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2013). Parent attachment and early adolescents’ life satisfaction: The mediating effect of hope. Psychology in the Schools, 50(4), 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jovanović, V. (2013). Evaluation of the Children’s Hope Scale in Serbian adolescents: Dimensionality, measurement invariance across gender, convergent and incremental validity. Child Indicators Research, 6(4), 797–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 403–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King, P. E., & Benson, P. L. (2006). Spiritual development and adolescent well-being and thriving. In E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. M. Wagener, & P. L. Benson (Eds.), The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 384–398). Newbury Park: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. King, P. E., Dowling, E. M., Mueller, R. A., White, K., Schultz, W., Osborn, P., et al. (2005). Thriving in adolescence: The voices of youth-serving practitioners, parents, and early and late adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(1), 94–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kintanar, N. S., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Hope and internal working models of the self and others: A correlational study on Filipino adolescents. Psychological Studies, 58, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lackaye, T. D., & Margalit, M. (2006). Comparisons of achievement, effort, and self-perceptions among students with learning disabilities and their peers from different achievement groups. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 432–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ladd, G. W., & Pettit, G. (2002). Parenting and the development of children’s peer relationships. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 5. Practical issues in parenting (Vol. 2, pp. 269–309). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Larson, R. W. (1997). The emergence of solitude as a constructive domain of experience in early adolescence. Child Development, 68, 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lerner, R. M., Alberts, A. E., Anderson, P. M., & Dowling, E. M. (2006). On making humans human: Spirituality and the promotion of positive youth development. In E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. Wagener, & P. L. Benson (Eds.), The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 60–72). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lopez, S. J., Rose, S., Robinson, C., Marques, S. C., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. (2009). Measuring and promoting hope in school children. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (pp. 37–51). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Models of agency: Sociocultural diversity in the construction of action. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 1–57). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  40. Marques, S. C., Pais-Ribeiro, J. L., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Children’s Hope Scale. School Psychology International, 30(5), 538–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2011a). “Building hope for the future”: A program to foster strengths in middle-school students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(1), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marques, S. C., Pais-Ribeiro, J. L., & Lopez, S. J. (2011b). The role of positive psychology constructs in predicting mental health and academic achievement in children and adolescents: A two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6), 1049–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Mitchell, J. (2013). The role of hope, spirituality and religious practice in adolescents’ life satisfaction: Longitudinal findings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Merkaš, M., & Brajša-Žganec, A. (2011). Children with different levels of hope: are there differences in their self-esteem, life satisfaction, social support, and family cohesion? Child Indicators Research, 4, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller, J. G. (2003). Culture and agency: Implications for psychological theories of motivation and social development. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 59–99). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  46. Moran, B. L., & DuBois, D. L. (2002). Relation of social support and self-esteem to problem behavior: Investigation of differing models. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 407–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Noor, N. M., & Alwi, A. (2013). Stressors and well‐being in low socio‐economic status Malaysian adolescents: The role of resilience resources. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16(4), 292–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. O’Neil, R., Parke, R. D., & McDowell, D. J. (2001). Objective and subjective features of children’s neighborhoods: Relations to parental regulatory strategies and children’s social competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Phan, H. P. (2013). Examination of self-efficacy and hope: a developmental approach using latent growth modeling. The Journal of Educational Research, 106(2), 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pulido-Martos, M., Jiménez-Moral, J. A., Lopez-Zafra, E., & Ruiz, J. R. (2014). An adaptation of the Children’s Hope Scale in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 7, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 496–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shulruf, B., Hattie, J., & Dixon, R. (2007). Development of a new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shulruf, B., Hattie, J., & Dixon, R. (2011). Intertwinement of individualist and collectivist attributes and response sets. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 5, 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, C., & Denton, M. (2005). Soul searching: The religious and spiritual lives of American teenagers. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  57. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Snyder, C. R., Hoza, N., Pelham, W. E., & Rapoff, M. (1997). The development and validation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2000). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2004). Further evaluation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22(4), 320–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysis of hope as a psychological strength. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vieno, A., Santinello, M., Pastore, M., & Perkins, D. D. (2007). Social support, sense of community in school, and self-efficacy as resources during early adolescence: An integrative model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wagener, L. M., Furrow, J. L., King, P. E., Leffert, N., & Benson, P. (2003). Religious involvement and developmental resources in youth. Review of Religious Research, 44, 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wallace, J. M., Forman, T. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Willis, D. S. (2003). Religion and American youth: Recent patterns, historical trends and sociodemographic correlates. Youth and Society, 35, 98–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wong, S. S., & Lim, T. (2009). Hope versus optimism in Singaporean adolescents: Contributions to depression and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(5), 648–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yeh, K. H., Bedford, O., & Yang, Y. J. (2009). A cross-cultural comparison of the coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. You, S., Furlong, M. J., Felix, E., Sharkey, J. D., Tanigawa, D., & Green, J. G. (2008). Relations among school connectedness, hope, life satisfaction, and bully victimization. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 446–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauMacauChina

Personalised recommendations