Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 589–611 | Cite as

The Relationship between Adolescents’ Social Capital and Individualism-Collectivism in Estonia, Germany, and Russia

  • Mai BeilmannEmail author
  • Boris Mayer
  • Kairi Kasearu
  • Anu Realo
Article

Abstract

The present study examines the relationship between adolescents’ social capital and individualism-collectivism using data from the Value of Children Study (Trommsdorff and Nauck 2005) from Estonia (N = 228), Germany (N = 278), and Russia (N = 280). Two social capital indexes for adolescents (measuring parental social capital and peer-group social capital) were developed for the analysis. The COLINDEX Scale (Chan 1994) was used to measure individualistic and collectivistic values. In all three countries collectivistic values predicted parental social capital whereas individualistic values predicted peer-group social capital. There were also a few country-specific relationships between the constructs, with collectivism and peer-group social capital being positively related in Estonia and individualism and parental social capital significantly negatively correlated in Russia. The current analysis suggests that during the adolescence, collectivistic values are more likely to be related to higher levels of parental social capital and individualistic values to higher levels of peer-group social capital. Therefore, it seems that at the individual level and for adolescents the individualism and collectivism are related to different forms of social capital in the different manner.

Keywords

Adolescents Individualism Collectivism Social capital 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The writing of this article was supported by a grant from the Estonian Ministry of Science and Education (IUT02-13).

We would like to thank Gisela Trommsdorff for her helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article, and Zara Saraliewa for letting us use the VOC data from Russia for our analysis.

References

  1. Allik, J., & Realo, A. (2004). Individualism-collectivism and social capital. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bassani, C. (2007). Five dimensions of social capital theory as they pertain to youth studies. Journal of Youth Studies, 10, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beilmann, M., & Realo, A. (2012). Individualism-collectivism and social capital at the individual level. Trames: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 16(3), 205–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berntsson, L., Köhler, L., & Vuille, J.–. C. (2006). Health, economy and social capital in Nordic children and their families: a comparison between 1984 and 1996. Child: Care, Health & Development, 32, 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burt, R. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. The American Journal of Sociology, 110, 349–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, D. K.-S. (1994). Colindex: A refinement of three collectivism measures. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S.–. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, methods, and applications (pp. 200–210). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Coleman, J. (1987). Families and schools. Educational Researcher, 16, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coleman, J. (1988a). Social capital in the creation of human capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coleman, J. (1988b). The creation and destruction of social capital. Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 3, 375–404.Google Scholar
  10. Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: The BelknapPress of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, J. H., & Witko, C. (2008). School choice and the creation of social capital re-examined. American Journal of Political Science, 52, 142–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crosnoe, R. (2004). Social capital and the interplay of families and schools. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Downey, D. B., & Condron, D. J. (2004). Playing well with others in kindergarten: the benefit of siblings at home. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Englund, M. M., I-Chun Kuo, S., Puig, J., & Collins, W. A. (2011). Early roots of adult competence: the significance of close relationships from infancy to early adulthood. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 35, 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein, S. (1983). The mother-father-peer scale. Unpublished manuscript. Amherst: University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  16. Farrell, A., Tayler, C., & Tennent, L. (2004). Building social capital in early childhood education and care: an Australian study. British Educational Research Journal, 30, 623–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferguson, K. M. (2004). Measuring and indigenizing social capital in relation to children’s street work in Mexico: the role of culture in shaping social capital indicators. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 31, 81–103.Google Scholar
  18. Ferguson, K. M. (2006). Social capital and children’s wellbeing: a critical synthesis of the international social capital literature. International Journal of Social Welfare, 15, 2–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perceptions of the personal relationships in their social networks. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1016–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gabriel, O. W., & Walter Rogg, M. (2008). Social capital and political trust. In H. Meulemann (Ed.), Social capital in Europe: similarity of countries and diversity of people? Multi-level analysis of the European Social Survey 2002 (pp. 219–250). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  21. Gillies, V., & Lucey, H. (2006). It’s a connection you can’t get away from: brothers, sisters and social capital. Journal of Youth Studies, 9, 479–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goodwin, M., & Armstrong-Esther, D. (2004). Children, social capital and health: increasing the well-being of young people in rural Wales. Children’s Geographies, 2, 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halpern, D. (2005). Social capital. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Hofstede, G. (1983). Dimensions of national cultures in fifty countries and three regions. In J. Deregowski, S. Dziurawiec, & R. C. Annis (Eds.), Expiscations in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 335–355). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  26. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations (2 nd vol.). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Holland, J., Reynolds, T., & Weller, S. (2007). Transitions, networks and communities: the significance of social capital in the lives of children and young people. Journal of Youth Studies, 10, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. James, A., & Prout, A. (Eds.). (1997). Constructing and reconstructing childhood. Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kim, D. H., & Schneider, B. (2005). Social capital in action: alignment of parental support in adolescents’ transition to postsecondary education. Social Forces, 84, 1181–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klug, T., Mayer, B., Sudjin, S., & Trommsdorff, G. (2009). Intergenerationale Unterstützung: Ein Vergleich russischer und deutscher erwachsener Töchter. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation, 29, 45–59.Google Scholar
  31. Leonard, M. (2005). Children, childhood and social capital: exploring the links. Sociology, 39, 605–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayer, B., Kuramschew, A., & Trommsdorff, G. (2009). Familienbezogene Werte und Zukunftsvorstellungen in der Adoleszenz: Ein deutsch-russischer Vergleich. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation, 29, 29–44.Google Scholar
  34. McNamara Horvat, E., Weininger, E. B., & Lareau, A. (2003). From social ties to social capital: class differences in the relations between schools and parent networks. American Educational Research Journal, 40, 319–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meltzer, H., Vostanis, P., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2007). Children’s perceptions of neighbourhood trustworthiness and safety and their mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1208–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meulemann, H. (2008). Is altruism more effective where it is required more? Collectivity-orinetation and involvement in interest, issue, and religious associations. In H. Meulemann (Ed.), Social capital in Europe: similarity of countries and diversity of people? Multi-level analysis of the European Social Survey 2002 (pp. 73–102). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  37. Morgan, S. L., & Sorensen, A. B. (1999). Parental networks, social closure, and mathematics learning. A test of Coleman’s social capital explanation of school effects. American Sociology Review, 64, 661–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nauck, B., & Trommsdorff, G. (2009). Familienbeziehungen in Russland und Deutschland: Einführung in den Themenschwerpunkt. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation, 29, 5–9.Google Scholar
  39. Neller, K. (2008). Explaining social trust: what makes people trust their fellow citizens. In H. Meulemann (Ed.), Social capital in Europe: similarity of countries and diversity of people? Multi-level analysis of the European Social Survey 2002 (pp. 103–133). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  40. Offer, S., & Schneider, B. (2007). Children’s role in generating social capital. Social Forces, 85, 1125–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oishi, S., Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Suh, E. M. (1998). The measurement of values and individualism-collectivism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1177–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ostroff, C. (1993). Comparing correlations based on individual-level and aggregated data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pettit, G. S., Erath, S. A., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2011). Dimensions of social capital and life adjustment in the transition to early adulthood. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 35, 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Powell, B., Carr Steelman, L., & Carini, R. M. (2006). Advancing age, advantaged youth: parental age and the transmission of resources to children. Social Forces, 84, 1359–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  47. Putnam, R. D. (2002). Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Raiser, M., Haerpfer, C., Noworthy, T., Wallace, C. (2001). Social Capital in transition: a first look at the evidence. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Working Paper, No. 61.Google Scholar
  49. Realo, A. (1998). Collectivism in an individualist culture: The case of Estonia. Trames, 2, 19–39.Google Scholar
  50. Realo, A., & Allik, J. (1999). A cross-cultural study of collectivism: A comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian students. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Realo, A., & Allik, J. (2009). On the relationship between social capital and individualism-collectivism. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Realo, A., Allik, J., & Vadi, M. (1997). The hierarchical structure of collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Realo, A., Koido, K., Ceulemans, E., & Allik, J. (2002). Three components of individualism. European Journal of Personality, 16, 163–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Realo, A., Allik, J., & Greenfield, B. (2008). Radius of trust: Social capital in relation to familism and institutional collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rhee, E., Uleman, J. S., & Lee, H. K. (1996). Variations in collectivism and individualism by in-group and culture: Confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1037–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rohner, R. P., & Cournoyer, D. E. (1994). Universals in youths’ perceptions of parental acceptance and rejection: Evidence from factor analyses within eight sociocultural groups worldwide. Cross-Cultural Research, 28, 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rothstein, B. (2002). Sweden: Social capital in the social democratic state. In R. Putnam (Ed.), Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society (pp. 289–331). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schneider, M., Teske, P., Marschall, M., Mintrom, M., & Roch, C. (1997). Institutional arrangements and the creation of social capital: the effects of public school choice. American Political Science Review, 91, 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schneider, M., Teske, P., & Marschall, M. (2000). Choosing schools: consumer choice and the quality of American schools. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  61. Schwarz, B., Mayer, B., Trommsdorff, G., Ben-Arieh, A., Friedlmeier, M., Lubiewska, K., et al. (2012). Does the importance of parent and peer relationships for adolescents’ life satisfaction vary across cultures? Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 55–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Seaman, P., & Sweeting, H. (2004). Assisting young people’s access to social capital in contemporary families: a qualitative study. Journal of Youth Studies, 7, 173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Teachman, J. D., Paasch, K., & Carver, K. (1997). Social capital and the generation of human capital. Social Forces, 75, 1343–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Trommsdorff, G. (2006). Cultural values regarding children and family: the cultural meaning of parent–child relationships. In J. Straub (Ed.), Pursuit of meaning: advances in cultural and cross-cultural psychology (pp. 465–494). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  65. Trommsdorff, G. (2009). Intergenerational relations and cultural transmission. In U. Schönpflug (Ed.), Cultural transmission. Psychological, developmental, social, and methodological aspects (pp. 126–160). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Trommsdorff, G., & Nauck, B. (2005). The value of children in cross-cultural perspective. Case of studies from eight societies. Lengerich: Pabst Science.Google Scholar
  67. Trommsdorff, G., Mayer, B., & Albert, I. (2004). Dimensions of culture in intra-cultural comparisons. Individualism/collectivism and family-related values in three generations. In H. Vinken, J. Soeters, & P. Ester (Eds.), Comparing Cultures. Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective (pp. 157–179). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  68. UNICEF. (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child-wellbeing in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
  69. Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. van der Meer, T., Scheepers, P., & te Grotenhuis, M. (2008). Does the state affect the informal connections between its citizens? New institutionalist explanations of social participation in everyday life. In H. Meulemann (Ed.), Social capital in Europe: similarity of countries and diversity of people? Multi-level analysis of the European Social Survey 2002 (pp. 41–72). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  71. Vinken, H., Soeters, J., & Ester, P. (2004). Cultures and dimensions. Classic perspectives and new opportunities in “dimensionalist” cross-cultural studies. In H. Vinken, J. Soeters, & P. Ester (Eds.), Comparing Cultures. Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective (pp. 5–27). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mai Beilmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Boris Mayer
    • 2
  • Kairi Kasearu
    • 1
  • Anu Realo
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

Personalised recommendations