Error Orientation and Reflection at Work
- 833 Downloads
Reflection on events at work, including errors is often as a means to learn effectively through work. In a cross-sectional field study in the banking sector, we investigated attitudes towards workplace errors (i.e. error orientation) as predictors of reflective activity. We assumed the organisational climate for psychological safety to have a mediating effect. The study participants were 84 client advisors from the retail banking departments in branches of a German bank. The client advisors’ were being affected by a range of changes in their workplaces at the time of the data collection. This situation afforded these workers opportunity for learning but also involved the risk of error by these staff. Regression analyses identified that error competence and learning from errors were significant predictors of reflection. The results confirmed the mediating role of psychological safety on the association between attitudes towards errors and reflective working behaviour.
KeywordsError orientation Psychological safety Reflection Retail banking Workplace change
This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) through a grant (GR 1384/11-2) awarded to Hans Gruber and Helmut Heid. We thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on this article.
- Bauer, J. (2008). Learning from errors at work: Studies on nurses’ engagement in error-related learning activities. Doctoral dissertation, University of Regensburg, Germany. http://www.opus-bayern.de/uni-regensburg/volltexte/2008/990 (Accessed April 21, 2010).
- Berg, A., & Hallberg, I. R. (2001). Effects of systematic clinical supervision on psychiatric nurses’ sense of coherence, creativity, work-related strain, job satisfaction and view of the effects from clinical supervision: a pre-post test design. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 6, 371–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boud, D. J., & Walker, D. (1991). Experience and learning: Reflection at work. Geelong: Deakin University Press.Google Scholar
- Boud, D. J., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1989). Promoting reflection in learning: a model. In D. J. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 18–40). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
- Boud, D. J., Cressey, P., & Docherty, P. (Eds.). (2006). Productive reflection at work. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression / correlation analysis for the behavioural sciences. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ellström, P.-E. (2006). The meaning and role of reflection in informal learning at work. In D. J. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work (pp. 43–53). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gartmeier, M., Kipfmueller, S., Gruber, H., & Heid, H. (2008). Reflection and professional competence. A study at dynamic workplaces in the nursing sector. In S. Billett, C. Harteis, & A. Eteläpelto (Eds.), Emerging perspectives of workplace learning (pp. 131–147). Rotterdam: Sense.Google Scholar
- Harteis, C., Bauer, J., & Haltia, P. (2007). Learning from errors in the workplace—insights from two studies in Germany and Finland. In H. Gruber & T. Palonen (Eds.), Learning in the workplace—new developments (pp. 119–138). Turku: Finnish Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Høyrup, S., & Elkjaer, B. (2006). Reflection. Taking it beyond the individual. In D. J. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work (pp. 29–42). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, S., Grote, S., & Henschel, A. (2007). Das Kompetenz-Reflexions-Inventar (KRI) [The competence reflection inventory]. In L. von Rosenstiel & J. Erpenbeck (Eds.), Handbuch Kompetenzmessung (pp. 337–347). Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel.Google Scholar
- Kim, D., & Lee, S. (2002). Designing collaborative reflection supporting tools in e-project based learning environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13, 375–392.Google Scholar
- Moon, J. A. (1999). Reflection in learning and professional development. Theory and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Nyhan, B. (2006). Collective reflection for excellence in work organizations: An ethical ‘community of practice’ perspective on reflection. In D. J. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work (pp. 133–145). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Raehalme, O. (1999). The bank office as a learning environment. In P. Ruohotie, J. Honka, & A. Suvanto (Eds.), The developmental challenges in the cooperation of education and training and working life (pp. 71–80). Tampere: Edita.Google Scholar
- Reason, J. (1990). Human error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Strasser, J., & Gruber, H. (2005). Reflection and the development of psychological counsellors’ professional knowledge. In H. Gruber, C. Harteis, R. H. Mulder, & M. Rehrl (Eds.), Bridging individual, organisational, and cultural perspectives on professional learning (pp. 221–226). Regensburg: Roderer.Google Scholar
- Van Woerkom, M. (2003). Critical reflection at work. Bridging individual and organisational learning. Enschede: PrintPartners.Google Scholar
- Zhao, B., & Olivera, F. (2006). Error reporting in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 31, 1012–1030.Google Scholar