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Immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid reveals concurrent development of ATL in the CNS of a HAM/TSP patient

Abstract

Both adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) can be induced by HTLV-1, but concurrent development has been rarely reported. We present the case of a 55-year-old female who developed cranial nerve symptoms after a 20-year history of HAM/TSP. Although multiple white matter lesions were observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging, no abnormalities were seen on a systemic computed tomography scan. Quantitative flow-cytometric analysis of cell populations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed that most of the infiltrating cells were not inflammatory cells, but HTLV-1-infected CD4+ CADM-1+ T-cells completely lacking CD7 expression. As stepwise downregulation of CD7 is correlated with disease progression from HTLV-1 carrier to aggressive ATL, the CSF cells were classified as aggressive ATL; these cells exhibited a more progressed phenotype than those in peripheral blood (PB). HAM/TSP disease activity was estimated to be low. From these and other examinations, we made a diagnosis of acute-type ATL, which unusually developed in the central nervous system at initial onset prior to systemic progression. In ATL cases with a challenging diagnosis, immunophenotypic characterization of CSF and PB is valuable for differential diagnosis and understanding disease status.

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Correspondence to Tomohiro Ishigaki.

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Takeda, R., Ishigaki, T., Ohno, N. et al. Immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid reveals concurrent development of ATL in the CNS of a HAM/TSP patient. Int J Hematol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02815-7

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Keywords

  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL)
  • HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)
  • Multi-color flow cytometry
  • Central nervous system involvement