Palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone for prevention of nausea and vomiting after high-dose melphalan in autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma: A phase II study
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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a significant side effect in multiple myeloma (MM) patients receiving high-dose melphalan treatment followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a triple antiemetic combination of palonosetron, aprepitant, and low-dose dexamethasone in 24 MM patients who received melphalan conditioning (100 mg/m2 on days 1–2) before ASCT (on day 4). Intravenous palonosetron (0.75 mg on day 1), oral aprepitant (125 mg on day 1; 80 mg on days 2–4), and intravenous dexamethasone (6.6 mg on days 1–4) were administered for prevention of CINV. Complete response (no emesis and no rescue antiemetic) and complete control (no emesis, no rescue antiemetic, and no more than mild nausea) rates were 75 and 68% during the overall phase (0–120 h), while they were 88 and 86% in the acute phase (0–48 h), 75 and 68% in the delayed phase (48–120 h), and 67 and 59% in the extended phase (120–168 h), respectively. There were no serious adverse events related to the antiemetic therapy. In conclusion, the three-antiemetic regimen consisting of palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone was safe and effective for controlling CINV due to high-dose melphalan treatment, especially during the delayed phase.
KeywordsMultiple myeloma High-dose melphalan Nausea Palonosetron Aprepitant
The authors would like to thank Drs. Momoko Mawatari, Akio Saito, Akinori Yuzuriha, Naru Sato, and Hiroko Koya for their contributions to patient care and data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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