Petroleum Science

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 57–63 | Cite as

Annular multiphase flow behavior during deep water drilling and the effect of hydrate phase transition

  • Zhiyuan Wang
  • Baojiang SunEmail author


It is very important to understand the annular multiphase flow behavior and the effect of hydrate phase transition during deep water drilling. The basic hydrodynamic models, including mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, were established for annular flow with gas hydrate phase transition during gas kick. The behavior of annular multiphase flow with hydrate phase transition was investigated by analyzing the hydrate-forming region, the gas fraction in the fluid flowing in the annulus, pit gain, bottom hole pressure, and shut-in casing pressure. The simulation shows that it is possible to move the hydrate-forming region away from sea floor by increasing the circulation rate. The decrease in gas volume fraction in the annulus due to hydrate formation reduces pit gain, which can delay the detection of well kick and increase the risk of hydrate plugging in lines. Caution is needed when a well is monitored for gas kick at a relatively low gas production rate, because the possibility of hydrate presence is much greater than that at a relatively high production rate. The shut-in casing pressure cannot reflect the gas kick due to hydrate formation, which increases with time.

Key words

Annular multiphase flow phase transition natural gas hydrate gas kick 


  1. Barker J W and Gomez R K. Formation of hydrates during deepwater drilling operations. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 1989. 41(3): 297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dholabhai P D, Kalogerakis N and Bishnoi P R. Kinetics of methane hydrate formation in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 1993. 71(2): 68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ebeltoft H, Yousif M and Soergaard E. Hydrate control during deep water drilling: overview and new drilling fluids. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 5–8 October 1997, San Antonio, Texas (SPE 38567)Google Scholar
  4. Fossil B and Sangesland S. Managed pressure drilling for subsea applications: well control challenges in deep waters. SPE/IADC Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, 11–12 October 2004, Houston, Texas (SPE/IADC 91633)Google Scholar
  5. Handa Y P. Compositions enthalpies of dissociation, and heat capacities in the range 85 to 270 K for clathrate hydrates of CH4, C2H6, C3H8. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics. 1986. 18(7): 915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hasan A R and Kabir C S. Aspects of wellbore heat transfer during two-phase flow. SPE Production & Facilities. 1994. 9(4): 211–216 (SPE 22948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jamaluddin A M, Kalogerakis N and Bishnoi P R. Modeling of decomposition of a synthetic core of methane gas hydrate by coupling intrinsic kinetics with heat transfer rates. Phys. Chem. 1989. 67(6): 948–954Google Scholar
  8. Kim H C, Bishnoi P R and Heidemann R A. Kinetics of methane hydrate decomposition. Chemical Engineering Science. 1987. 42(7): 1645–1653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. LeBlanc J L and Lewis R L. A mathematical model of a gas kick. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 1968. 20(8): 888–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Loevois J S, Perkins R, Martin R J, et al. Development of an automated high pressure heat flux calorimeter and its application to measure the heat of dissociation and hydrate member of methane hydrate. Fluid Phase Equilibrium. 1990. 59: 73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nickens H V. A dynamic computer model of a kicking well. SPE Drilling Engineering. 1987. 7: 158–173Google Scholar
  12. Nunes J O L, Bannwart A C and Ribeiro P R. Mathematical model of a gas kick in deep water scenario. IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, 8–11 September 2002, Jakarta, Indonesia (SPE/IADC 77253)Google Scholar
  13. Rueff R M, Sloan E D and Yesavage V F. Heat capacity and heat of dissociation of methane hydrates. AIChE J. 1988. 34(9): 1468–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Santos O A. A mathematical model of a gas kick when drilling in deep waters. MS Thesis. Colorado School of Mines. 1982Google Scholar
  15. Vysniauskas A and Bishnoi P R. A kinetic study of methane hydrate formation. Chemical Engineering Science. 1983. 38(7): 1061–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Petroleum (Beijing) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Petroleum EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)DongyingChina

Personalised recommendations