Advertisement

Der Kardiologe

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 264–291 | Cite as

Diagnostik und Therapie der kardialen Amyloidose

Positionspapier der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie – Herz- und Kreislaufforschung (DGK)
  • A. YilmazEmail author
  • J. Bauersachs
  • I. Kindermann
  • K. Klingel
  • F. Knebel
  • B. Meder
  • C. Morbach
  • E. Nagel
  • E. Schulze-Bahr
  • F. aus dem Siepen
  • N. Frey
Positionspapiere

Zusammenfassung

Systemische Amyloidoseformen, die das Herz betreffen, sind v. a. die Leichtketten(AL)- und die ATTR-Amyloidosen, bei der es zur Ablagerung von fehlgefaltetem Transthyretin kommt (entweder als Wildtyp [wtATTR]-Form oder mutiert [mATTR]). Neben speziellen kardialen Biomarkern stehen heutzutage moderne nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie das Herz-MRT oder szintigraphische Verfahren zur Verfügung, die die konventionelle Echokardiographie ergänzen und neben der Diagnose einer kardialen Amyloidose auch noch eine exakte Erfassung des Ausprägungsgrades ermöglichen. Als invasives diagnostisches Verfahren spielt die Endomyokardbiopsie weiterhin eine zentrale Rolle für die histopathologische Verifizierung bzw. Subtypisierung der kardialen Amyloidose. Wesentliches Ziel des in diesem Positionspapier skizzierten Diagnosepfades ist es, das Vorliegen einer kardialen Amyloidose möglichst sicher und frühzeitig zu erfassen, das Ausmaß der kardialen Amyloidose genau zu charakterisieren, die zugrunde liegende Amyloidoseform sicher zu identifizieren und anschließend eine gezielte Behandlung zu ermöglichen.

Schlüsselwörter

Amyloidose Myokard MRT Szintigraphie Endomyokardbiopsie 

Diagnostics and treatment of cardiac amyloidosis

Position paper of the German Cardiac Society (DGK)

Abstract

Systemic forms of amyloidosis that are associated with cardiac involvement are in particular light-chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, which is caused by deposition of incorrectly folded transthyretin, either as the wild-type (wtATTR) or mutated (mATTR) form. Apart from specific cardiac biomarkers, modern noninvasive imaging procedures, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and scintigraphic methods are available today. These imaging procedures not only complement conventional echocardiography but also enable accurate assessment of the extent of cardiac involvement in addition to the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. In addition, invasive endomyocardial biopsy still plays a major role in histopathological confirmation of the underlying diagnosis and subsequent subtyping of cardiac amyloidosis. The major goal of the diagnostic algorithm illustrated in the present position paper is a definitive and timely diagnosis of the presence of cardiac amyloidosis, to accurately assess the extent of cardiac involvement, to quickly and safely identify the underlying subtype of amyloidosis and to subsequently enable a targeted treatment.

Keywords

Amyloidosis Myocardium Magnetic resonance imaging Scintigraphy Endomyocardial biopsy 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

A. Yilmaz: Vortrags- und Beratungshonorare von Alnylam und Pfizer Pharma GmbH. J. Bauersachs: Vortrags- und Beratungshonorare von Pfizer Pharma GmbH. I. Kindermann: Vortragshonorare von Akcea Therapeutics und Pfizer Pharma GmbH. K. Klingel: Vortragshonorare von Akcea Therapeutics, Alnylam und Pfizer Pharma GmbH. F. Knebel: Vortrags- und Beratungshonorare von Akcea Therapeutics, Alnylam und Pfizer Pharma GmbH. B. Meder: Vortragshonorare von Akcea Therapeutics und Alnylam sowie Reisekostenunterstützung von Pfizer Pharma GmbH. C. Morbach: Co-PI in einer Therapiestudie von Novartis, Vortrags- und Beratungshonorare von Amgen, Akcea Therapeutics, Alnylam und EBR Systems, Reisekostenstipendium von Thermo Fisher, Orion Pharma und Alnylam. E. Nagel gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. E. Schulze-Bahr gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. F. aus dem Siepen: Vortragshonorare von Akcea Therapeutics und Alnylam sowie Reisekostenunterstützung von Pfizer Pharma GmbH. N. Frey gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

Supplementary material

12181_2019_344_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (178 kb)
Anhang 1: Szintigraphische Verfahren
12181_2019_344_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (34 kb)
Anhang 2: Extrakardiale Biopsie

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Vaxman I, Gertz M (2019) Recent advances in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of systemic light-chain Amyloidosis. Acta Haematol 141(2):93–106Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ablasser K, Verheyen N, Glantschnig T, Agnetti G, Rainer PP (2018) Unfolding cardiac Amyloidosis—from Pathophysiology to cure. Curr Med Chem.  https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867325666180104153338 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hammarstrom P, Jiang X, Hurshman AR, Powers ET, Kelly JW (2002) Sequence-dependent denaturation energetics: a major determinant in amyloid disease diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(Suppl 4):16427–16432Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Merlini G, Bellotti V (2003) Molecular mechanisms of amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 349(6):583–596Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bourgault S, Choi S, Buxbaum JN, Kelly JW, Price JL, Reixach N (2011) Mechanisms of transthyretin cardiomyocyte toxicity inhibition by resveratrol analogs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 410(4):707–713Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rocken C, Shakespeare A (2002) Pathology, diagnosis and pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Virchows Arch 440(2):111–122Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kyle RA, Linos A, Beard CM, Linke RP, Gertz MA, O’Fallon WM, Kurland LT (1992) Incidence and natural history of primary systemic amyloidosis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1950 through 1989. Blood 79(7):1817–1822Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Madan S, Kumar SK, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Hayman SR, Buadi FK, Dingli D, Rajkumar SV, Hogan WJ, Leung N, Grogan M, Gertz MA (2012) High-dose melphalan and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for light-chain amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. Blood 119(5):1117–1122 (2)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cornwell GG III, Murdoch WL, Kyle RA, Westermark P, Pitkanen P (1983) Frequency and distribution of senile cardiovascular amyloid. A clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Med 75(4):618–623Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gonzalez-Lopez E, Gallego-Delgado M, Guzzo-Merello G, de Haro-Del Moral FJ, Cobo-Marcos M, Robles C, Bornstein B, Salas C, Lara-Pezzi E, Alonso-Pulpon L, Garcia-Pavia P (2015) Wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis as a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 36(38):2585–2594Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mohammed SF, Mirzoyev SA, Edwards WD, Dogan A, Grogan DR, Dunlay SM, Roger VL, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, Zeldenrust SR, Redfield MM (2014) Left ventricular amyloid deposition in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Jacc Heart Fail 2(2):113–122 (Apr)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koivuniemi R, Paimela L, Suomalainen R, Tornroth T, Leirisalo-Repo M (2008) Amyloidosis is frequently undetected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Amyloid 15(4):262–268Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rapezzi C, Lorenzini M, Longhi S, Milandri A, Gagliardi C, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, Maurer MS (2015) Cardiac amyloidosis: the great pretender. Heart Fail Rev 20(2):117–124Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Desport E, Bridoux F, Sirac C, Delbes S, Bender S, Fernandez B, Quellard N, Lacombe C, Goujon JM, Lavergne D, Abraham J, Touchard G, Fermand JP, Jaccard A (2012) Al amyloidosis. Orphanet J Rare Dis 7:54Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feng D, Edwards WD, Oh JK, Chandrasekaran K, Grogan M, Martinez MW, Syed IS, Hughes DA, Lust JA, Jaffe AS, Gertz MA, Klarich KW (2007) Intracardiac thrombosis and embolism in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. Circulation 116(21):2420–2426Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsai SB, Seldin DC, Wu H, O’Hara C, Ruberg FL, Sanchorawala V (2011) Myocardial infarction with “clean coronaries” caused by amyloid light-chain AL amyloidosis: a case report and literature review. Amyloid 18(3):160–164Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dorbala S, Vangala D, Bruyere J Jr., Quarta C, Kruger J, Padera R, Foster C, Hanley M, Di Carli MF, Falk R (2014) Coronary microvascular dysfunction is related to abnormalities in myocardial structure and function in cardiac amyloidosis. Jacc Heart Fail 2(4):358–367Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lousada I, Comenzo RL, Landau H, Guthrie S, Merlini G (2015) Light chain Amyloidosis: patient experience survey from the Amyloidosis research consortium. Adv Ther 32(10):920–928Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Hayman SR, Buadi FK, Colby C, Laumann K, Zeldenrust SR, Leung N, Dingli D, Greipp PR, Lust JA, Russell SJ, Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV, Gertz MA (2012) Revised prognostic staging system for light chain amyloidosis incorporating cardiac biomarkers and serum free light chain measurements. J Clin Oncol 30(9):989–995Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rapezzi C, Quarta CC, Riva L, Longhi S, Gallelli I, Lorenzini M, Ciliberti P, Biagini E, Salvi F, Branzi A (2010) Transthyretin-related amyloidoses and the heart: a clinical overview. Nat Rev Cardiol 7(7):398–408Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rapezzi C, Merlini G, Quarta CC, Riva L, Longhi S, Leone O, Salvi F, Ciliberti P, Pastorelli F, Biagini E, Coccolo F, Cooke RM, Bacchi-Reggiani L, Sangiorgi D, Ferlini A, Cavo M, Zamagni E, Fonte ML, Palladini G, Salinaro F, Musca F, Obici L, Branzi A, Perlini S (2009) Systemic cardiac amyloidoses: disease profiles and clinical courses of the 3 main types. Circulation 120(13):1203–1212Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maurer MS, Elliott P, Comenzo R, Semigran M, Rapezzi C (2017) Addressing common questions encountered in the diagnosis and management of cardiac Amyloidosis. Circulation 135(14):1357–1377Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nativi-Nicolau J, Maurer MS (2018) Amyloidosis cardiomyopathy: update in the diagnosis and treatment of the most common types. Curr Opin Cardiol 33(5):571–579Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cavalcante JL, Rijal S, Abdelkarim I, Althouse AD, Sharbaugh MS, Fridman Y, Soman P, Forman DE, Schindler JT, Gleason TG, Lee JS, Schelbert EB (2017) Cardiac amyloidosis is prevalent in older patients with aortic stenosis and carries worse prognosis. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 19(1):98Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Castano A, Narotsky DL, Hamid N, Khalique OK, Morgenstern R, DeLuca A, Rubin J, Chiuzan C, Nazif T, Vahl T, George I, Kodali S, Leon MB, Hahn R, Bokhari S, Maurer MS (2017) Unveiling transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis and its predictors among elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Eur Heart J 38(38):2879–2887Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Treibel TA, Fontana M, Gilbertson JA, Castelletti S, White SK, Scully PR, Roberts N, Hutt DF, Rowczenio DM, Whelan CJ, Ashworth MA, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN, Moon JC (2016) Occult Transthyretin cardiac Amyloid in severe calcific aortic Stenosis: prevalence and prognosis in patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 9(8).  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.116.005066 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maurer MS, Hanna M, Grogan M, Dispenzieri A, Witteles R, Drachman B, Judge DP, Lenihan DJ, Gottlieb SS, Shah SJ, Steidley DE, Ventura H, Murali S, Silver MA, Jacoby D, Fedson S, Hummel SL, Kristen AV, Damy T, Plante-Bordeneuve V, Coelho T, Mundayat R, Suhr OB, Waddington CM, Rapezzi C (2016) Genotype and phenotype of Transthyretin cardiac Amyloidosis: THAOS (Transthyretin Amyloid outcome survey). J Am Coll Cardiol 68(2):161–172 (Jul)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ruberg FL, Maurer MS, Judge DP, Zeldenrust S, Skinner M, Kim AY, Falk RH, Cheung KN, Patel AR, Pano A, Packman J, Grogan DR (2012) Prospective evaluation of the morbidity and mortality of wild-type and V122I mutant transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Cardiac Study (TRACS). Am Heart J 164(2):222–228Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Connors LH, Sam F, Skinner M, Salinaro F, Sun F, Ruberg FL, Berk JL, Seldin DC (2016) Heart failure resulting from Age-related cardiac Amyloid disease associated with wild-type Transthyretin: a prospective, observational cohort study. Circulation 133(3):282–290Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Janssen S, van Rijswijk MH, Meijer S, Ruinen L, Van der Hem GK (1986) Systemic amyloidosis: a clinical survey of 144 cases. Neth J Med 29(11):376–385Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lachmann HJ, Goodman HJ, Gilbertson JA, Gallimore JR, Sabin CA, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN (2007) Natural history and outcome in systemic AA amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 356(23):2361–2371Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tanaka F, Migita K, Honda S, Fukuda T, Mine M, Nakamura T, Yamasaki S, Ida H, Kawakami A, Origuchi T, Eguchi K (2003) Clinical outcome and survival of secondary (AA) amyloidosis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 21(3):343–346Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bergesio F, Ciciani AM, Manganaro M, Palladini G, Santostefano M, Brugnano R, Di Palma AM, Gallo M, Rosati A, Tosi PL, Salvadori M (2008) Renal involvement in systemic amyloidosis: an Italian collaborative study on survival and renal outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 23(3):941–951Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grogan M, Scott CG, Kyle RA, Zeldenrust SR, Gertz MA, Lin G, Klarich KW, Miller WL, Maleszewski JJ, Dispenzieri A (2016) Natural history of wild-type Transthyretin cardiac Amyloidosis and risk stratification using a novel staging system. J Am Coll Cardiol 68(10):1014–1020Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gillmore JD, Damy T, Fontana M, Hutchinson M, Lachmann HJ, Martinez-Naharro A, Quarta CC, Rezk T, Whelan CJ, Gonzalez-Lopez E, Lane T, Gilbertson JA, Rowczenio D, Petrie A, Hawkins PN (2018) A new staging system for cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis. Eur Heart J 39(30):2799–2806Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hanson JLS, Arvanitis M, Koch CM, Berk JL, Ruberg FL, Prokaeva T, Connors LH (2018) Use of serum Transthyretin as a prognostic indicator and predictor of outcome in cardiac Amyloid disease associated with wild-type Transthyretin. Circ Heart Fail 11(2):e4000Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gertz MA (2018) Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2018 Update on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Am J Hematol 93(9):1169–1180Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sperry BW, Vranian MN, Hachamovitch R, Joshi H, McCarthy M, Ikram A, Hanna M (2016) Are classic predictors of voltage valid in cardiac amyloidosis? A contemporary analysis of electrocardiographic findings. Int J Cardiol 214:477–481Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Namdar M, Steffel J, Jetzer S, Schmied C, Hurlimann D, Camici GG, Bayrak F, Ricciardi D, Rao JY, de AC, Chierchia GB, Sarkozy A, Luscher TF, Jenni R, Duru F, Brugada P (2012) Value of electrocardiogram in the differentiation of hypertensive heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, amyloidosis, and Fabry disease. Am J Cardiol 109(4):587–593Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    van den Berg MP, Mulder BA, Klaassen SHC, Maass AH, Van Veldhuisen DJ, van der Meer P, Nienhuis HLA, Hazenberg BPC, Rienstra M (2019) Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, and the role of senile amyloidosis. Eur Heart J 40(16):1287–1293.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz057 Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, Deharo JC, Elliott PM, Fanciulli A, Fedorowski A, Furlan R, Kenny RA, Martin A, Probst V, Reed MJ, Rice CP, Sutton R, Ungar A, van Dijk JG (2018) 2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J 39(21):1883–1948Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Navarro JF, Rivera M, Ortuno J (1992) Cardiac tamponade as presentation of systemic amyloidosis. Int J Cardiol 36(1):107–108Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L, Flachskampf FA, Foster E, Goldstein SA, Kuznetsova T, Lancellotti P, Muraru D, Picard MH, Rietzschel ER, Rudski L, Spencer KT, Tsang W, Voigt JU (2015) Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 16(3):233–270Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JGF, Coats AJS, Falk V, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Harjola VP, Jankowska EA, Jessup M, Linde C, Nihoyannopoulos P, Parissis JT, Pieske B, Riley JP, Rosano GMC, Ruilope LM, Ruschitzka F, Rutten FH, van der Meer P (2016) 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 37(27):2129–2200Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Phelan D, Collier P, Thavendiranathan P, Popovic ZB, Hanna M, Plana JC, Marwick TH, Thomas JD (2012) Relative apical sparing of longitudinal strain using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Heart 98(19):1442–1448Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ternacle J, Bodez D, Guellich A, Audureau E, Rappeneau S, Lim P, Radu C, Guendouz S, Couetil JP, Benhaiem N, Hittinger L, Dubois-Rande JL, Plante-Bordeneuve V, Mohty D, Deux JF, Damy T (2016) Causes and consequences of longitudinal LV dysfunction assessed by 2D strain Echocardiography in cardiac Amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 9(2):126–138Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pagourelias ED, Mirea O, Duchenne J, Van CJ, Delforge M, Bogaert J, Kuznetsova T, Voigt JU (2017) Echo parameters for differential diagnosis in cardiac Amyloidosis: a head-to-head comparison of deformation and Nondeformation parameters. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 10(3):e5588Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Senior R, Becher H, Monaghan M, Agati L, Zamorano J, Vanoverschelde JL, Nihoyannopoulos P, Edvardsen T, Lancellotti P (2017) Clinical practice of contrast echocardiography: recommendation by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) 2017. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 18(11):1205–1205aGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Claus P, Omar AMS, Pedrizzetti G, Sengupta PP, Nagel E (2015) Tissue tracking technology for assessing cardiac mechanics: principles, normal values, and clinical applications. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 8(12):1444–1460Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Hawkins PN, Roughton M, Pennell DJ (2008) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and prognosis in cardiac amyloidosis. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10:54Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Syed IS, Glockner JF, Feng D, Araoz PA, Martinez MW, Edwards WD, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, Oh JK, Bellavia D, Tajik AJ, Grogan M (2010) Role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of cardiac amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 3(2):155–164Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vogelsberg H, Mahrholdt H, Deluigi CC, Yilmaz A, Kispert EM, Greulich S, Klingel K, Kandolf R, Sechtem U (2008) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in clinically suspected cardiac amyloidosis: noninvasive imaging compared to endomyocardial biopsy. J Am Coll Cardiol 51(10):1022–1030 (Mar)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    White JA, Kim HW, Shah D, Fine N, Kim KY, Wendell DC, Al-Jaroudi W, Parker M, Patel M, Gwadry-Sridhar F, Judd RM, Kim RJ (2014) CMR imaging with rapid visual T1 assessment predicts mortality in patients suspected of cardiac amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 7(2):143–156Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Boynton SJ, Geske JB, Dispenzieri A, Syed IS, Hanson TJ, Grogan M, Araoz PA (2016) LGE provides incremental prognostic information over serum Biomarkers in AL cardiac Amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 9(6):680–686Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fontana M, Pica S, Reant P, Abdel-Gadir A, Treibel TA, Banypersad SM, Maestrini V, Barcella W, Rosmini S, Bulluck H, Sayed RH, Patel K, Mamhood S, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Whelan CJ, Herrey AS, Lachmann HJ, Wechalekar AD, Manisty CH, Schelbert EB, Kellman P, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN, Moon JC (2015) Prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in cardiac Amyloidosis. Circulation 132(16):1570–1579Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Puntmann VO, Peker E, Chandrashekhar Y, Nagel E (2016) T1 mapping in characterizing myocardial disease: a comprehensive review. Circ Res 119(2):277–299Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fontana M, Banypersad SM, Treibel TA, Maestrini V, Sado DM, White SK, Pica S, Castelletti S, Piechnik SK, Robson MD, Gilbertson JA, Rowczenio D, Hutt DF, Lachmann HJ, Wechalekar AD, Whelan CJ, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN, Moon JC (2014) Native T1 mapping in transthyretin amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 7(2):157–165Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hinojar R, Varma N, Child N, Goodman B, Jabbour A, Yu CY, Gebker R, Doltra A, Kelle S, Khan S, Rogers T, Arroyo UE, Cummins C, Carr-White G, Nagel E, Puntmann VO (2015) T1 mapping in discrimination of hypertrophic phenotypes: hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: findings from the international T1 Multicenter cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003285 Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Karamitsos TD, Piechnik SK, Banypersad SM, Fontana M, Ntusi NB, Ferreira VM, Whelan CJ, Myerson SG, Robson MD, Hawkins PN, Neubauer S, Moon JC (2013) Noncontrast T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 6(4):488–497Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Messroghli DR, Moon JC, Ferreira VM, Grosse-Wortmann L, He T, Kellman P, Mascherbauer J, Nezafat R, Salerno M, Schelbert EB, Taylor AJ, Thompson R, Ugander M, van Heeswijk RB, Friedrich MG (2017) Clinical recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance mapping of T1, T2, T2* and extracellular volume: a consensus statement by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (SCMR) endorsed by the European association for cardiovascular imaging (EACVI). J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 19(1):75Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Martinez-Naharro A, Kotecha T, Norrington K, Boldrini M, Rezk T, Quarta C, Treibel TA, Whelan CJ, Knight DS, Kellman P, Ruberg FL, Gillmore JD, Moon JC, Hawkins PN, Fontana M (2018) Native T1 and extracellular volume in Transthyretin Amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.02.006 Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yilmaz A (2019) The “native T1 versus extracellular volume fraction paradox” in cardiac Amyloidosis: answer to the million-dollar question? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 12(5):820–822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.03.029 Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bokhari S, Castano A, Pozniakoff T, Deslisle S, Latif F, Maurer MS (2013) (99m)Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy for differentiating light-chain cardiac amyloidosis from the transthyretin-related familial and senile cardiac amyloidoses. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 6(2):195–201Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Glaudemans AW, van Rheenen RW, van den Berg MP, Noordzij W, Koole M, Blokzijl H, Dierckx RA, Slart RH, Hazenberg BP (2014) Bone scintigraphy with (99m)technetium-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate allows early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in patients with transthyretin-derived systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid 21(1):35–44Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perugini E, Guidalotti PL, Salvi F, Cooke RM, Pettinato C, Riva L, Leone O, Farsad M, Ciliberti P, Bacchi-Reggiani L, Fallani F, Branzi A, Rapezzi C (2005) Noninvasive etiologic diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis using 99mTc‑3,3‑diphosphono‑1,2‑propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy. J Am Coll Cardiol 46(6):1076–1084Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Castano A, Haq M, Narotsky DL, Goldsmith J, Weinberg RL, Morgenstern R, Pozniakoff T, Ruberg FL, Miller EJ, Berk JL, Dispenzieri A, Grogan M, Johnson G, Bokhari S, Maurer MS (2016) Multicenter study of planar technetium 99m Pyrophosphate cardiac imaging: predicting survival for patients with ATTR cardiac Amyloidosis. Jama Cardiol 1(8):880–889Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gillmore JD, Maurer MS, Falk RH, Merlini G, Damy T, Dispenzieri A, Wechalekar AD, Berk JL, Quarta CC, Grogan M, Lachmann HJ, Bokhari S, Castano A, Dorbala S, Johnson GB, Glaudemans AW, Rezk T, Fontana M, Palladini G, Milani P, Guidalotti PL, Flatman K, Lane T, Vonberg FW, Whelan CJ, Moon JC, Ruberg FL, Miller EJ, Hutt DF, Hazenberg BP, Rapezzi C, Hawkins PN (2016) Nonbiopsy diagnosis of cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis. Circulation 133(24):2404–2412 (Jun)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ross JC, Hutt DF, Burniston M, Page J, Steeden JA, Gillmore JD, Wechalekar AD, Hawkins PN, Fontana M (2018) Quantitation of (99m)Tc-DPD uptake in patients with transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid 25(3):203–210Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kim YJ, Ha S, Kim YI (2018) Cardiac amyloidosis imaging with amyloid positron emission tomography: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nucl Cardiol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12350-018-1365-x Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Baratto L, Park SY, Hatami N, Gulaka P, Vasanawala S, Yohannan TK, Herfkens R, Witteles R, Iagaru A (2018) (18)F-florbetaben whole-body PET/MRI for evaluation of systemic amyloid deposition. Ejnmmi Res 8(1):66Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dorbala S, Vangala D, Semer J, Strader C, Bruyere JR Jr., Di Carli MF, Moore SC, Falk RH (2014) Imaging cardiac amyloidosis: a pilot study using (1)(8)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 41(9):1652–1662Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lee SP, Lee ES, Choi H, Im HJ, Koh Y, Lee MH, Kwon JH, Paeng JC, Kim HK, Cheon GJ, Kim YJ, Kim I, Yoon SS, Seo JW, Sohn DW (2015) 11C-Pittsburgh B PET imaging in cardiac amyloidosis. Jacc Cardiovasc Imaging 8(1):50–59Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lister-James J, Pontecorvo MJ, Clark C, Joshi AD, Mintun MA, Zhang W, Lim N, Zhuang Z, Golding G, Choi SR, Benedum TE, Kennedy P, Hefti F, Carpenter AP, Kung HF, Skovronsky DM (2011) Florbetapir f‑18: a histopathologically validated beta-amyloid positron emission tomography imaging agent. Semin Nucl Med 41(4):300–304Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Genovesi D, Vergaro G, Emdin M, Giorgetti A, Marzullo P (2017) PET-CT evaluation of amyloid systemic involvement with [(18)F]-florbetaben in patient with proved cardiac amyloidosis: a case report. J Nucl Cardiol 24(6):2025–2029Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Holzmann M, Nicko A, Kuhl U, Noutsias M, Poller W, Hoffmann W, Morguet A, Witzenbichler B, Tschope C, Schultheiss HP, Pauschinger M (2008) Complication rate of right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy via the femoral approach: a retrospective and prospective study analyzing 3048 diagnostic procedures over an 11-year period. Circulation 118(17):1722–1728Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yilmaz A, Kindermann I, Kindermann M, Mahfoud F, Ukena C, Athanasiadis A, Hill S, Mahrholdt H, Voehringer M, Schieber M, Klingel K, Kandolf R, Bohm M, Sechtem U (2010) Comparative evaluation of left and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy: differences in complication rate and diagnostic performance. Circulation 122(9):900–909Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Khan T, Selvakumar D, Trivedi S, Rao K, Harapoz M, Thiagalingam A, Denniss AR, Varikatt W (2017) The value of endomyocardial biopsy in diagnosis and guiding therapy. Pathology 49(7):750–756Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kristen AV, Brokbals E, Aus dem SF, Bauer R, Hein S, Aurich M, Riffel J, Behrens HM, Kruger S, Schirmacher P, Katus HA, Rocken C (2016) Cardiac Amyloid load: a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with light-chain Amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 68(1):13–24Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mehta P, Chapel DB, Goyal N, Yu DB, Mor-Avi V, Narang A, Addetia K, Sarswat N, Lang RM, Husain AN, Patel AR (2019) A histopathologic schema to quantify the burden of cardiac amyloidosis: Relationship with survival and echocardiographic parameters. Echocardiography 36(2):285–291Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fine NM, Arruda-Olson AM, Dispenzieri A, Zeldenrust SR, Gertz MA, Kyle RA, Swiecicki PL, Scott CG, Grogan M (2014) Yield of noncardiac biopsy for the diagnosis of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. Am J Cardiol 113(10):1723–1727Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, Larson DR, Plevak MF, Offord JR, Dispenzieri A, Katzmann JA, Melton LJ III (2006) Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N Engl J Med 354(13):1362–1369Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lachmann HJ, Booth DR, Booth SE, Bybee A, Gilbertson JA, Gillmore JD, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN (2002) Misdiagnosis of hereditary amyloidosis as AL (primary) amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 346(23):1786–1791Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sattianayagam PT, Hahn AF, Whelan CJ, Gibbs SD, Pinney JH, Stangou AJ, Rowczenio D, Pflugfelder PW, Fox Z, Lachmann HJ, Wechalekar AD, Hawkins PN, Gillmore JD (2012) Cardiac phenotype and clinical outcome of familial amyloid polyneuropathy associated with transthyretin alanine 60 variant. Eur Heart J 33(9):1120–1127Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Griffiths BE, Hughes P, Dowdle R, Stephens MR (1982) Cardiac amyloidosis with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and deterioration after nifedipine. Thorax 37(9):711–712Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Palladini G, Dispenzieri A, Gertz MA, Kumar S, Wechalekar A, Hawkins PN, Schonland S, Hegenbart U, Comenzo R, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA, Jaccard A, Klersy C, Merlini G (2012) New criteria for response to treatment in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis based on free light chain measurement and cardiac biomarkers: impact on survival outcomes. J Clin Oncol 30(36):4541–4549Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schonland SO, Dreger P (2012) Current status of hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of systemic amyloid light-chain amyloidosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 47(7):895–905Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kastritis E, Wechalekar AD, Dimopoulos MA, Merlini G, Hawkins PN, Perfetti V, Gillmore JD, Palladini G (2010) Bortezomib with or without dexamethasone in primary systemic (light chain) amyloidosis. J Clin Oncol 28(6):1031–1037Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Venner CP, Lane T, Foard D, Rannigan L, Gibbs SD, Pinney JH, Whelan CJ, Lachmann HJ, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN, Wechalekar AD (2012) Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone therapy in AL amyloidosis is associated with high clonal response rates and prolonged progression-free survival. Blood 119(19):4387–4390Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Maurer MS, Schwartz JH, Gundapaneni B, Elliott PM, Merlini G, Waddington-Cruz M, Kristen AV, Grogan M, Witteles R, Damy T, Drachman BM, Shah SJ, Hanna M, Judge DP, Barsdorf AI, Huber P, Patterson TA, Riley S, Schumacher J, Stewart M, Sultan MB, Rapezzi C (2018) Tafamidis treatment for patients with Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 379(11):1007–1016Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Barroso FA, Judge DP, Ebede B, Li H, Stewart M, Amass L, Sultan MB (2017) Long-term safety and efficacy of tafamidis for the treatment of hereditary transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy: results up to 6 years. Amyloid 24(3):194–204Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Adams D, Gonzalez-Duarte A, O’Riordan WD, Yang CC, Ueda M, Kristen AV, Tournev I, Schmidt HH, Coelho T, Berk JL, Lin KP, Vita G, Attarian S, Plante-Bordeneuve V, Mezei MM, Campistol JM, Buades J, Brannagan TH III, Kim BJ, Oh J, Parman Y, Sekijima Y, Hawkins PN, Solomon SD, Polydefkis M, Dyck PJ, Gandhi PJ, Goyal S, Chen J, Strahs AL, Nochur SV, Sweetser MT, Garg PP, Vaishnaw AK, Gollob JA, Suhr OB (2018) Patisiran, an RNAi therapeutic, for hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 379(1):11–21 (Jul)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Benson MD, Waddington-Cruz M, Berk JL, Polydefkis M, Dyck PJ, Wang AK, Plante-Bordeneuve V, Barroso FA, Merlini G, Obici L, Scheinberg M, Brannagan TH III, Litchy WJ, Whelan C, Drachman BM, Adams D, Heitner SB, Conceicao I, Schmidt HH, Vita G, Campistol JM, Gamez J, Gorevic PD, Gane E, Shah AM, Solomon SD, Monia BP, Hughes SG, Kwoh TJ, McEvoy BW, Jung SW, Baker BF, Ackermann EJ, Gertz MA, Coelho T (2018) Inotersen treatment for patients with hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 379(1):22–31 (Jul)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Solomon SD, Adams D, Kristen A, Grogan M, Gonzalez-Duarte A, Maurer MS, Merlini G, Damy T, Slama MS, Brannagan TH III, Dispenzieri A, Berk JL, Shah AM, Garg P, Vaishnaw A, Karsten V, Chen J, Gollob J, Vest J, Suhr O (2019) Effects of Patisiran, an RNA interference therapeutic, on cardiac parameters in patients with hereditary Transthyretin-mediated Amyloidosis. Circulation 139(4):431–443Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Aus dem SF, Bauer R, Aurich M, Buss SJ, Steen H, Altland K, Katus HA, Kristen AV (2015) Green tea extract as a treatment for patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis: an observational study. Drug Des Devel Ther 9:6319–6325Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Karlstedt E, Jimenez-Zepeda V, Howlett JG, White JA, Fine NM (2019) Clinical experience with the use of Doxycycline and Ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of Transthyretin cardiac Amyloidosis. J Card Fail 25(3):147–153Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    de Real AD, Costa R, Galvan JM, Filigheddu MT, Trujillo D, Cadinanos J (2014) Systemic AA amyloidosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Clin Epidemiol 6:369–377Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Okamoto S, Wixner J, Obayashi K, Ando Y, Ericzon BG, Friman S, Uchino M, Suhr OB (2009) Liver transplantation for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: impact on Swedish patients’ survival. Liver Transpl 15(10):1229–1235Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Suhr OB, Larsson M, Ericzon BG, Wilczek HE (2016) Survival after transplantation in patients with mutations other than val30met: extracts from the FAP world transplant registry. Transplantation 100(2):373–381Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yazaki M, Mitsuhashi S, Tokuda T, Kametani F, Takei YI, Koyama J, Kawamorita A, Kanno H, Ikeda SI (2007) Progressive wild-type transthyretin deposition after liver transplantation preferentially occurs onto myocardium in FAP patients. Am J Transplant 7(1):235–242Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ericzon BG, Wilczek HE, Larsson M, Wijayatunga P, Stangou A, Pena JR, Furtado E, Barroso E, Daniel J, Samuel D, Adam R, Karam V, Poterucha J, Lewis D, Ferraz-Neto BH, Cruz MW, Munar-Ques M, Fabregat J, Ikeda S, Ando Y, Heaton N, Otto G, Suhr O (2015) Liver transplantation for hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis: after 20 years still the best therapeutic alternative? Transplantation 99(9):1847–1854Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stangou AJ, Hawkins PN (2004) Liver transplantation in transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Curr Opin Neurol 17(5):615–620Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Koike H, Katsuno M (2019) Ultrastructure in Transthyretin Amyloidosis: from Pathophysiology to therapeutic insights. Biomedicines.  https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010011 Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Palladini G, Malamani G, Co F, Pistorio A, Recusani F, Anesi E, Garini P, Merlini G (2001) Holter monitoring in AL amyloidosis: prognostic implications. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 24(8 Pt 1):1228–1233Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Varr BC, Zarafshar S, Coakley T, Liedtke M, Lafayette RA, Arai S, Schrier SL, Witteles RM (2014) Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. Heart Rhythm 11(1):158–162Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sayed RH, Rogers D, Khan F, Wechalekar AD, Lachmann HJ, Fontana M, Mahmood S, Sachchithanantham S, Patel K, Hawkins PN, Whelan CJ, Gillmore JD (2015) A study of implanted cardiac rhythm recorders in advanced cardiac AL amyloidosis. Eur Heart J 36(18):1098–1105 (May)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kristen AV, Dengler TJ, Hegenbart U, Schonland SO, Goldschmidt H, Sack FU, Voss F, Becker R, Katus HA, Bauer A (2008) Prophylactic implantation of cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with severe cardiac amyloidosis and high risk for sudden cardiac death. Heart Rhythm 5(2):235–240Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lin G, Dispenzieri A, Kyle R, Grogan M, Brady PA (2013) Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(7):793–798 (Jul)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Patel KS, Hawkins PN, Whelan CJ, Gillmore JD (2014) Life-saving implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in cardiac AL amyloidosis. Bmj Case Rep.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-206600 Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lin G, Dispenzieri A, Brady PA (2010) Successful termination of a ventricular arrhythmia by implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in a patient with cardiac amyloidosis: insight into mechanisms of sudden death. Eur Heart J 31(12):1538Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Priori SG, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A, Blom N, Borggrefe M, Camm J, Elliott PM, Fitzsimons D, Hatala R, Hindricks G, Kirchhof P, Kjeldsen K, Kuck KH, Hernandez-Madrid A, Nikolaou N, Norekval TM, Spaulding C, Van Veldhuisen DJ (2015) ESC guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: the task force for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death of the European society of cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: association for European Paediatric and congenital cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 36(41):2793–2867Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Russo AM, Stainback RF, Bailey SR, Epstein AE, Heidenreich PA, Jessup M, Kapa S, Kremers MS, Lindsay BD, Stevenson LW (2013) ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 appropriate use criteria for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy: a report of the American college of cardiology foundation appropriate use criteria task force, heart rhythm society, American heart association, American society of Echocardiography, heart failure society of america, society for cardiovascular Angiography and interventions, society of cardiovascular computed Tomography, and society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 61(12):1318–1368Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, Bryant WJ, Callans DJ, Curtis AB, Deal BJ, Dickfeld T, Field ME, Fonarow GC, Gillis AM, Granger CB, Hammill SC, Hlatky MA, Joglar JA, Kay GN, Matlock DD, Myerburg RJ, Page RL (2017) AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: a report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on clinical practice guidelines and the heart rhythm society. J Am Coll Cardiol 72(14):e91–e220Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G, Bordachar P, Boriani G, Breithardt OA, Cleland J, Deharo JC, Delgado V, Elliott PM, Gorenek B, Israel CW, Leclercq C, Linde C, Mont L, Padeletti L, Sutton R, Vardas PE, Zamorano JL, Achenbach S, Baumgartner H, Bax JJ, Bueno H, Dean V, Deaton C, Erol C, Fagard R, Ferrari R, Hasdai D, Hoes AW, Kirchhof P, Knuuti J, Kolh P, Lancellotti P, Linhart A, Nihoyannopoulos P, Piepoli MF, Ponikowski P, Sirnes PA, Tamargo JL, Tendera M, Torbicki A, Wijns W, Windecker S, Kirchhof P, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Badano LP, Aliyev F, Bansch D, Baumgartner H, Bsata W, Buser P, Charron P, Daubert JC, Dobreanu D, Faerestrand S, Hasdai D, Hoes AW, Le Heuzey JY, Mavrakis H, McDonagh T, Merino JL, Nawar MM, Nielsen JC, Pieske B, Poposka L, Ruschitzka F, Tendera M, Van Gelder IC, Wilson CM (2013) 2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Eur Heart J 34(29):2281–2329Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dispenzieri A, Gertz MA, Kyle RA, Lacy MQ, Burritt MF, Therneau TM, McConnell JP, Litzow MR, Gastineau DA, Tefferi A, Inwards DJ, Micallef IN, Ansell SM, Porrata LF, Elliott MA, Hogan WJ, Rajkumar SV, Fonseca R, Greipp PR, Witzig TE, Lust JA, Zeldenrust SR, Snow DS, Hayman SR, McGregor CG, Jaffe AS (2004) Prognostication of survival using cardiac troponins and N‑terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 104(6):1881–1887Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Comenzo RL, Reece D, Palladini G, Seldin D, Sanchorawala V, Landau H, Falk R, Wells K, Solomon A, Wechalekar A, Zonder J, Dispenzieri A, Gertz M, Streicher H, Skinner M, Kyle RA, Merlini G (2012) Consensus guidelines for the conduct and reporting of clinical trials in systemic light-chain amyloidosis. Leukemia 26(11):2317–2325Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie - Herz- und Kreislaufforschung e.V. Published by Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature - all rights reserved 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Yilmaz
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Bauersachs
    • 2
  • I. Kindermann
    • 3
  • K. Klingel
    • 4
  • F. Knebel
    • 5
  • B. Meder
    • 6
  • C. Morbach
    • 7
  • E. Nagel
    • 8
  • E. Schulze-Bahr
    • 9
  • F. aus dem Siepen
    • 6
  • N. Frey
    • 10
    • 11
  1. 1.Sektion für Herzbildgebung, Klinik für Kardiologie IUniversitätsklinikum MünsterMünsterDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik für Kardiologie und AngiologieMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverDeutschland
  3. 3.Klinik für Innere Medizin III (Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische Intensivmedizin), Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische FakultätUniversität des SaarlandesHomburgDeutschland
  4. 4.Institut für Pathologie und NeuropathologieUniversität TübingenTübingenDeutschland
  5. 5.Medizinische Klinik m.S. Kardiologie und AngiologieCharité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus MitteBerlinDeutschland
  6. 6.Klinik für Innere Medizin IIIUniversitätsklinikum HeidelbergHeidelbergDeutschland
  7. 7.Interdisziplinäres Amyloidosezentrum Nordbayern, Deutsches Zentrum für Herzinsuffizienz, Medizinische Klinik IUniversität WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland
  8. 8.Institut für experimentelle und translationale kardiovaskuläre BildgebungUniversitätsklinikum FrankfurtFrankfurtDeutschland
  9. 9.Institut für Genetik von Herzerkrankungen (IfGH)Universitätsklinikum MünsterMünsterDeutschland
  10. 10.Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Schwerpunkt Kardiologie und AngiologieUniversitätsklinikum Schleswig-HolsteinKielDeutschland
  11. 11.Kommission für Klinische Kardiovaskuläre MedizinDeutsche Gesellschaft für KardiologieDüsseldorfDeutschland

Personalised recommendations