Advertisement

ACL Reconstruction with Augmentation: a Scoping Review

  • Michael D. Riediger
  • Devon Stride
  • Sarah E. Coke
  • Adrian Z. Kurz
  • Andrew Duong
  • Olufemi R. AyeniEmail author
Outcomes Research in Orthopedics (O Ayeni, Section Editor)
  • 33 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Outcomes Research in Orthopedics

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We reviewed the recent literature to identify and summarize new research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with augmentation in the form of additional soft tissue procedures or biologic augmentation. Specifically, we wanted to review the failure rates of these procedures in both the primary and revision settings.

Methods

The databases Embase, PubMed, and Medline were searched on August 13, 2018, for English-language studies that reported on the use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (primary and revision) in conjunction with either soft tissue or biologic augmentation. The studies were systematically screened and data abstracted in duplicates.

Recent Findings

Advancements in ACLR surgery, including soft tissue augmentation, may decrease primary and revision surgery failure rates for high-risk patients. The use of biological augmentation has shown histologic and radiographic improvements. These differences, however, have failed to be statistically significant and have not resulted in clinically significant improvements in outcome.

Summary

The limited body of evidence has shown that the addition of soft tissue procedures may in fact lower the risk of graft re-rupture rates particularly in revision or in patients wishing to return to high-risk sports and activities. The use of biologic augmentation although promising in laboratory studies has yet to show any significant clinical results and therefore will require further studies to prove any efficacy.

Keywords

Anterior cruciate ligament Anterolateral ligament Lateral tenodesis Platelet-rich plasma Lemaire 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Michael D. Riediger, Devon Stride, Sarah E. Coke, Adrian Z. Kurz, and Andrew Duong each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Olufemi R. Ayeni is on the speaker’s bureau for Conmed and Smith & Nephew and is a section editor for Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Kaeding CC, Léger-St-Jean B, Magnussen RA. Epidemiology and diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clin Sports Med. 2017;36(1):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grassi A, Kim C, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, Zaffagnini S, Amendola A. What is the mid-term failure rate of revision ACL reconstruction? A systematic review. Clin Orthop. 2017;475(10):2484–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    LaPrade RF, Dragoo JL, Koh JL, Murray IR, Geeslin AG, Chu CR. AAOS research symposium updates and consensus: biologic treatment of orthopaedic injuries. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016;24(7):17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Claes S, Vereecke E, Maes M, Victor J, Verdonk P, Bellemans J. Anatomy of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. J Anat. 2013;223(4):321–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Monaco E, Ferretti A, Labianca L, Maestri B, Speranza A, Kelly MJ, et al. Navigated knee kinematics after cutting of the ACL and its secondary restraint. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20(5):870–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cerciello S, Batailler C, Darwich N, Neyret P. Extra-articular tenodesis in combination with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Sports Med. 2018;37(1):87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    • Ibrahim SA, Shohdy EM, Marwan Y, Ramadan SA, Almisfer AK, Mohammad MW, et al. Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee with or without reconstruction of the anterolateral ligament: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(7):1558–66 Randomized control trial examining outcomes of ACL vs ACL + ALL reconstruction directly. Authors found no difference in outcomes over 2-year follow-up period. Largest RCT identified for ACL + ALL reconstruction identified for this review. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thaunat M, Clowez G, Saithna A, Cavalier M, Choudja E, Vieira TD, et al. Reoperation rates after combined anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament reconstruction: a series of 548 patients from the SANTI study group with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(11):2569–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sonnery-Cottet B, Saithna A, Cavalier M, Kajetanek C, Temponi EF, Daggett M, et al. Anterolateral ligament reconstruction is associated with significantly reduced ACL graft rupture rates at a minimum follow-up of 2 years: a prospective comparative study of 502 patients from the SANTI study group. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(7):1547–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Louis M-L, D’ingrado P, Ehkirch FP, Bertiaux S, Colombet P, Sonnery-Cottet B, et al. Combined intra- and extra-articular grafting for revision ACL reconstruction: a multicentre study by the French Arthroscopy Society (SFA). Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017;103(8):S223–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zaffagnini S, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, Grassi A, Roberti di Sarsina T, Raggi F, Signorelli C, et al. Over-the-top ACL reconstruction plus extra-articular lateral tenodesis with hamstring tendon grafts: prospective evaluation with 20-year minimum follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(14):3233–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Imbert P, Lustig S, Steltzlen C, Batailler C, Colombet P, Dalmay F, et al. Midterm results of combined intra- and extra-articular ACL reconstruction compared to historical ACL reconstruction data. Multicenter study of the French Arthroscopy Society. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017;103(8):S215–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Imbert P, Belvedere C, Leardini A. Knee laxity modifications after ACL rupture and surgical intra- and extra-articular reconstructions: intra-operative measures in reconstructed and healthy knees. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(9):2725–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Panisset JC, Pailhé R, Schlatterer B, Sigwalt L, Sonnery-Cottet B, Lutz C, et al. Short-term complications in intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Comparison with the literature on isolated intra-articular reconstruction. A multicenter study by the French Arthroscopy Society. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017;103(8):S231–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alessio-Mazzola M, Formica M, Russo A, Sanguineti F, Capello A, Lovisolo S, et al. Outcome after combined lateral extra-articular tenodesis and anterior cruciate ligament revision in professional soccer players. J Knee Surg [Internet]. 2018 Sep 18 [cited 2018 Dec 5]; Available from: http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1672120.
  16. 16.
    Walters BL, Porter DA, Hobart SJ, Bedford BB, Hogan DE, McHugh MM, et al. Effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma treatment on postoperative donor site knee pain in patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(8):1827–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Valentí Nin JR, Mora Gasque G, Valentí Azcárate A, Aquerreta Beola JD, Hernandez Gonzalez M. Has platelet-rich plasma any role in anterior cruciate ligament allograft healing? Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg. 2009;25(11):1206–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seijas R, Rius M, Ares O, García-Balletbó M, Serra I, Cugat R. Healing of donor site in bone-tendon-bone ACL reconstruction accelerated with plasma rich in growth factors: a randomized clinical trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(4):991–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gaunder CL, Bastrom T, Pennock AT. Segond fractures are not a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction failure. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(14):3210–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neyret P, Palomo JR, Donell ST, Dejour H. Extra-articular tenodesis for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in amateur skiers. Br J Sports Med. 1994;28(1):31–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Engebretsen L, Lew WD, Lewis JL, Hunter RE. The effect of an iliotibial tenodesis on intraarticular graft forces and knee joint motion. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(2):169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guzzini M, Mazza D, Fabbri M, Lanzetti R, Redler A, Iorio C, et al. Extra-articular tenodesis combined with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in acute anterior cruciate ligament tear in elite female football players. Int Orthop. 2016;40(10):2091–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    •• Hexter AT, Thangarajah T, Blunn G, Haddad FS. Biological augmentation of graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review. Bone Jt J. 2018;100-B(3):271–84 Excellent systemic review examining all of the studies involving biological augmentation of ACL surgery including basic science and animal models which for the purpose of this article were only mentioned briefly as they were not in clinical trials yet. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Andriolo L, Di Matteo B, Kon E, Filardo G, Venieri G, Marcacci M. PRP augmentation for ACL reconstruction. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eriksson K, Kindblom L-G, Wredmark T. Semitendinosus tendon graft ingrowth in tibial tunnel following ACL reconstruction: a histological study of 2 patients with different types of early graft failure. Acta Orthop Scand. 2000;71(3):275–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lu H, Chen C, Xie S, Tang Y, Qu J. Tendon healing in bone tunnel after human anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review of histological results. J Knee Surg [Internet]. 2018 May 21 [cited 2018 Dec 17]; Available from: http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1653964.
  27. 27.
    Radice F, Yánez R, Gutiérrez V, Rosales J, Pinedo M, Coda S. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterior cruciate ligament grafts with and without autologous platelet-derived growth factors. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg. 2010;26(1):50–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J, Prado R, Muruzabal F, Andia I. Ligamentization of tendon grafts treated with an endogenous preparation rich in growth factors: gross morphology and histology. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg. 2010;26(4):470–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vadalà A, Iorio R, De Carli A, Ferretti M, Paravani D, Caperna L, et al. Platelet-rich plasma: does it help reduce tunnel widening after ACL reconstruction? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(4):824–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Almeida AM, Demange MK, Sobrado MF, Rodrigues MB, Pedrinelli A, Hernandez AJ. Patellar tendon healing with platelet-rich plasma: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(6):1282–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cervellin M, de Girolamo L, Bait C, Denti M, Volpi P. Autologous platelet-rich plasma gel to reduce donor-site morbidity after patellar tendon graft harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized, controlled clinical study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20(1):114–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Figueroa D, Figueroa F, Calvo R, Vaisman A, Ahumada X, Arellano S. Platelet-rich plasma use in anterior cruciate ligament surgery: systematic review of the literature. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg. 2015;31(5):981–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Magnussen RA, Flanigan DC, Pedroza AD, Heinlein KA, Kaeding CC. Platelet rich plasma use in allograft ACL reconstructions: two-year clinical results of a MOON cohort study. Knee. 2013;20(4):277–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kawai T, Yamada T, Yasukawa A, Koyama Y, Muneta T, Takakuda K. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using chitin-coated fabrics in a rabbit model. Artif Organs. 2010;34(1):55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li H, Chen S, Wu Y, Jiang J, Ge Y, Gao K, et al. Enhancement of the osseointegration of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament graft in a bone tunnel using 58S bioglass. Int Orthop. 2012;36(1):191–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cho S, Li H, Chen C, Jiang J, Tao H, Chen S. Cationised gelatin and hyaluronic acid coating enhances polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament graft osseointegration in porcine bone tunnels. Int Orthop. 2013;37(3):507–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vaquette C, Viateau V, Guérard S, Anagnostou F, Manassero M, Castner DG, et al. The effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration. Biomaterials. 2013;34(29):7048–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bi F, Shi Z, Liu A, Guo P, Yan S. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a rabbit model using silk-collagen scaffold and comparison with autograft. Liu X, editor PLOS ONE 2015;10(5):e0125900.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Riediger
    • 1
  • Devon Stride
    • 1
  • Sarah E. Coke
    • 2
  • Adrian Z. Kurz
    • 1
  • Andrew Duong
    • 1
  • Olufemi R. Ayeni
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of SurgeryMichael G. DeGroote School of MedicineHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineNorthern Ontario School of MedicineThunder BayCanada
  3. 3.McMaster University Medical CenterHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations