Electromagnetic tracking of the pivot-shift

  • Ryosuke KurodaEmail author
  • Yuichi Hoshino
ACL Update: Objective Measures on Knee Instability (V Musahl, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on ACL Update: Objective Measures on Knee Instability


The pivot-shift test is an important examination to assess the rotational laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured and reconstructed knees. Because this examination is related to subjective knee function, we may still see cases that have residual rotational laxity after ACL reconstruction. Quantitative evaluation of the pivot-shift test is preferable to the clinical pivot-shift test but is difficult to attain mainly due to complicated movements of the pivot-shift. The electromagnetic tracking system was developed to evaluate knee kinematics during the pivot-shift, providing information related to 6-degree-of-freedom knee kinematics with a high sampling rate. Through this device, the abnormal movement of the pivot-shift is characterized in two phases: an increased anterior tibial translation and a boosted acceleration of tibial posterior reduction. Since its invention, this system has been utilized to assess rotational laxity for clinical follow-up and research after the ACL reconstruction.


Anterior cruciate ligament Pivot-shift test Rotational laxity Electromagnetic tracking device Knee kinematics 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Ryosuke Kuroda and Yuichi Hoshino declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of MedicineKobe UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryKobe Kaisei HospitalKobeJapan

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