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Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability

  • Jason P. Zlotnicki
  • Jan-Hendrik Naendrup
  • Gerald A. Ferrer
  • Richard E. Debski
ACL Update: Objective Measures on Knee Instability (V Musahl, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on ACL Update: Objective Measures on Knee Instability

Abstract

Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a gold standard for objective quantification of injury and subsequent repair, has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that novel anatomic structures may play a significant role in knee stability. The use of biomechanical principles and testing techniques provides essential objective/quantitative information on the function of bone, ligaments, joint capsule, and other contributing soft tissues in response to various loading conditions. This review discusses the principles of biomechanics in relation to knee stability, with a focus on the objective quantification of knee stability, the individual contributions of specific knee structures to stability, and the most recent technological advances in the biomechanical evaluation of the knee joint.

Keywords

Biomechanics Anterior cruciate ligament ACL Pivot shift Anterolateral ligament ALL 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jason P. Zlotnicki, Jan-Hendrik Naendrup, Gerald A. Ferrer, and Richard E. Debski declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason P. Zlotnicki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan-Hendrik Naendrup
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gerald A. Ferrer
    • 2
    • 3
  • Richard E. Debski
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Orthopaedic Robotics LaboratoryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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