The role of simulation in developing surgical skills
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Surgical training has followed the master-apprentice model for centuries but is currently undergoing a paradigm shift. The traditional model is inefficient with no guarantee of case mix, quality, or quantity. There is a growing focus on competency-based medical education in response to restrictions on doctors’ working hours and the traditional mantra of “see one, do one, teach one” is being increasingly questioned. The medical profession is subject to more scrutiny than ever before and is facing mounting financial, clinical, and political pressures. Simulation may be a means of addressing these challenges. It provides a way for trainees to practice technical tasks in a protected environment without putting patients at risk and helps to shorten the learning curve. The evidence for simulation-based training in orthopedic surgery using synthetic models, cadavers, and virtual reality simulators is constantly developing, though further work is needed to ensure the transfer of skills to the operating theatre.
KeywordsArthroscopy Assessment Boot camp Cadaver Competency Education Feedback Patient safety Phantom Proficiency Psychomotor Simulation Skills Surgical training Task performance Training Virtual reality
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
K. S. N. Akhtar, N. J. Standfield, and C. M. Gupte declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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