Advanced glycation end products and diabetic retinopathy

  • Yashodhara Sharma
  • Sandeep SaxenaEmail author
  • Arvind Mishra
  • Anita Saxena
  • Shankar Madhav Natu


Studies have established hyperglycemia as the most important factor in the progress of vascular complications. Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlates with glycemic control. The AGE hypothesis proposes that hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including retinopathy. However, their role in diabetic retinopathy remains largely unknown. This review discusses the chemistry of AGEs formation and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to diabetic retinopathy. AGEs exert deleterious effects by acting directly to induce cross-linking of long-lived proteins to promote vascular stiffness, altering vascular structure and function and interacting with receptor for AGE, to induce intracellular signaling leading to enhanced oxidative stress and elaboration of key proinflammatory and prosclerotic cytokines. Novel anti-AGE strategies are being developed hoping that in next few years, some of these promising therapies will be successfully evaluated in clinical context aiming to reduce the major economical and medical burden caused by diabetic retinopathy.


Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) Hyperglycemia Diabetes mellitus Microvascular disease Retinopathy 



The authors acknowledge the Junior Research Fellowship grant (F. no. 17-7/2011(SA-I)) from the University Grants Commission, India.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yashodhara Sharma
    • 1
  • Sandeep Saxena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arvind Mishra
    • 2
  • Anita Saxena
    • 3
  • Shankar Madhav Natu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of MedicineKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of NephrologySanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  4. 4.Department of PathologyKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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