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Optimizing Anticoagulation in Older Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

  • Abigail Louise D. Te
  • Tze-Fan Chao
  • Shih-Ann ChenEmail author
Arrhythmias (J.Bunch, Section Editor)
  • 31 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Arrythmias

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We sought to review the current issues on optimization of anticoagulation in elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Recent Findings

Advanced age is a risk factor for stroke and as one advances in age, the risk of stroke also increases. One of the many challenges of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in the elderly patients with NVAF is the underutilization of anticoagulants. Commonly cited reasons for hesitation by physician in prescribing oral anticoagulants are advanced age, increase risk of bleeding, and the difficulty in maintaining an adequate time in therapeutic range and the need for frequent monitoring for those who are given warfarin. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have been shown to have similar or superior efficacy, and a better safety profile compared with warfarin due to its wider therapeutic window, low interaction with food, and less frequent monitoring of anticoagulation levels. It is also important to note that renal dysfunction is becoming increasingly common in elderly patients with AF. This poses a therapeutic challenge for physicians due to a higher bleeding risk; thus, renal function should be taken into consideration when prescribing NOACs. Warfarin, on the other hand, remains to be a viable therapeutic option in certain clinical scenarios.

Summary

In elderly patients, the choice of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in NVAF should be individualized and should include considerations for the best estimate of absolute benefit weighed against bleeding risks in order to optimize anticoagulation.

Keywords

Atrial fibrillation Oral anticoagulant Elderly Chronic kidney disease Warfarin 

Abbreviations

AF

Atrial fibrillation

CrCl

Creatinine clearance

ICH

Intracranial hemorrhage

INR

International normalized ratio

NOAC

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

NVAF

Nonvalvular AF

OAC

Oral anticoagulant

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

SPAF

Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

TTR

Time within therapeutic range

VKA

Vitamin K antagonist

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Drs. Te, Chao and Chen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail Louise D. Te
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tze-Fan Chao
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shih-Ann Chen
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Heart Rhythm Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineTaipei Veterans General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Heart InstituteSt. Luke’s Medical Center - Global CityTaguigPhilippines
  3. 3.Institute of Clinical Medicine and Cardiovascular Research CenterNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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