Smoking in Women—an Underestimated Relationship?
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Historically in medicine, chronic disease risk factors—including smoking—have been regarded as exerting the same influence on risk of disease in women as in men. This assumption was largely predicated on the fact that most of the early cohort studies were comprised solely of men and the findings were necessarily extrapolated to women for want of sex-specific data . However, with the subsequent initiation and maturation of large prospective studies of only women or of mixed populations, this assumption has been increasingly put to the test and found wanting [2, 3].
Just as there are subtle age differences in the relationships between certain risk factors with risk of disease, so too are there marked and clinically meaningful sex differences—often marked—in the strength of the association between some risk factors with chronic disease. A now classic example is diabetes, which confers a much stronger relative hazard for fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) in women than in men, which is...
KeywordsSmoking Women Chronic disease
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Rachel Huxley declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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