Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 261–269 | Cite as

Pediatric Lipid Screening and Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Ounce or a Pound?

  • Sarah D. de Ferranti
  • John B. Wong
  • Holly Gooding
  • Joshua T. Cohen
  • R. Christopher Sheldrick
  • Susan K. Parsons
  • Laurel K. Leslie
Pediatrics (S Gidding, Section Editor)


Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is declining, atherosclerosis-related diseases remain the leading cause of death. With the next frontier of CVD prevention focused on youth, the 2011 NHLBI Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents called for universal lipid screening of children ages 9–11 and adolescents ages 17–21 years. While atherosclerosis is rarely clinically evident in childhood, childhood risk factors have been linked to adult CVD events. Clinical controversies about screening and treatment exist, in part due to incomplete evidence, the long latency period between screening and adult CVD outcomes and the lack of information available about patient, provider and parent values and preferences. We describe clinical controversies in lipid screening and treatment for specific pediatric populations, highlight knowledge gaps limiting guideline development and implementation and consider innovative approaches that will further inform this discussion.


Cholesterol Dyslipidemia Screening Comparative effectiveness Decision analysis Statin 



American Academy of Pediatrics


Adult Treatment Panel


Cardiovascular disease


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Familial hypercholesterolemia


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute


Quality of Life


Randomized controlled trial




US Preventive Services Task Force


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah D. de Ferranti
    • 1
  • John B. Wong
    • 1
  • Holly Gooding
    • 1
  • Joshua T. Cohen
    • 1
  • R. Christopher Sheldrick
    • 1
  • Susan K. Parsons
    • 1
  • Laurel K. Leslie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA

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