Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 212–216

Women and Heart Failure: An Emerging Venus-Mars Concept

Women and Heart Disease (J Robinson, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s12170-013-0307-z

Cite this article as:
Low, T.T. & Lam, C.S.P. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep (2013) 7: 212. doi:10.1007/s12170-013-0307-z


Some of the most profound sex differences in cardiovascular disease are evident in the syndrome of heart failure. Certain heart failure conditions have a unique predilection for women, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and apical ballooning syndrome; or are exclusive to women, such as peripartum cardiomyopathy. Overall, there are notable differences between women and men in terms heart failure disease burden, risk factors, clinical presentation and prognosis. Yet, women remain under-represented in heart failure clinical trials. Important knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis for these sex differences and potential for effective sex-specific management strategies.


Heart failure Gender differences Sex Cardiomyopathy 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University Heart CentreFrom the National University Health SystemSingaporeSingapore

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