Biomarkers and Assessment of Subclinical Atherosclerosis for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease: What is the Current Evidence?
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe, with the majority being coronary deaths. The first presentation of cardiovascular disease, often in patients without significant traditional risk factors, is often myocardial infarction. Strategies utilizing biomarkers and assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis have been shown previously to correlate with cardiovascular disease. This article will review current evidence for these strategies, of which, measurement of coronary artery calcium has been shown to provide the greatest risk assessment, discrimination, and risk reclassification for coronary heart disease.
KeywordsCardiovascular risk Framingham risk score Biomarkers Brain natriuretic peptide C-reactive protein Coronary artery calcium Carotid intima media thickness Genome-wide association
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