Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 450–458 | Cite as

Improved Understanding and Innovative Approaches for an Aging Dilemma: Resistant Hypertension in Women with Existing Vascular Disease

  • Keith C. FerdinandEmail author
  • Samar A. Nasser
Secondary Intervention (JM Foody, Section Editor)


Approximately half of adults with hypertension in the United States are uncontrolled and perhaps, based on most recent data, 12 %–15 % are considered resistant. Moreover, compared with men, women have more prevalent resistant hypertension with greater older age status and obesity, 2 of the strongest predictors. Resistant hypertension is more common in African Americans and more frequent with concomitant heart disease, heart failure, diabetes, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. In addition to lifestyle modifications, effective treatment mandates combination therapy, including appropriate diuretics, renin-angiotensin system blockers, calcium channel blockers, and underutilized aldosterone antagonists. Emerging, innovative interventions, including renal artery denervation and carotid stimulation treatment, are potentially effective and well-tolerated approaches to blood pressure control.


Resistant Hypertension Women Disparities Cardiovascular disease Treatment African American 



K.C. Ferdinand: consultancy for Astra Zeneca, Merck, Takeda, Novartis, and Forest, received honoraria from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Novartis, Forest, and Astra Zeneca; S.A. Nasser: none.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tulane Heart and Vascular InstituteTulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Research and Leadership, School of Medicine and Health SciencesThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA

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