Geographical authentication of bone raw materials to determine whether they come from non-epidemic areas and natural pastoral areas is critical to quality control, food safety, and brand protection of gelatin. The establishment of an effective traceability method independent of paper records has become increasingly urgent. Therefore, the potential of the stable isotope and multi-element analyses for distinguishing the geographical origin of bone samples from various provinces in China was investigated. The C, N, and H isotopic compositions and the contents of 18 elements in bovine bone samples were studied by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), combined with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was shown that the values of δ13C, δ15N, and δ2H as well as the contents of 16 of the 18 elements in bone samples were significantly different among the regions. A total correct classification rate of 95.7% and 100% was obtained by the stable isotope traceability method and multi-element traceability method, while the cross-validation rate was 91.5% and 97.9%, respectively. It was concluded that both stable isotopes and mineral elements can be good indicators for tracing the geographical origin of bone raw materials. Due to the minor difference in the discrimination accuracy of these two methods, it is preferable to establish traceability models using stable isotope method in practical work considering economic feasibility and efficiency.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aceto M (2016) The use of ICP-MS in food traceability. In: Espiñeira M, Santaclara FJ (eds) Advances in food traceability techniques and technologies, 1st edn. Woodhead publishing, Cambridge, pp 137–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100310-7.00008-9
Bong YS, Shin WJ, Lee AR, Kim YS, Kim K, Lee KS (2010) Tracing the geographical origin of beefs being circulated in Korean markets based on stable isotopes. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:155–159. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.4366
Bontempo L, Camin F, Ziller L, Perini M, Nicolini G, Larcher R (2017) Isotopic and element-al composition of selected types of Italian honey. Measurement 98:283–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.11.022
Camin F, Bontempo L, Heinrich K, Horacek M, Kelly SD, Schlicht C, Thomas F, Monahan FJ, Hoogewerff J, Rossmann A (2007) Multi-element (H,C,N,S) stable isotope characteristics of lamb meat from different European regions. Anal Bioanal Chem 389:309–320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1302-3
Camin F, Bontempo L, Perini M, Piasentier E (2016) Stable isotope ratio analysis for assessing the authenticity of food of animal origin. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15:868–877. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12219
Camin F, Perini M, Bontempo L, Galeotti M, Tibaldi E, Piasentier E (2018) Stable isotope ratios of H, C, O, N and S for the geographical traceability of Italian rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chem 267:288–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.017
Cheng H, Li K, Li M, Yang K, Liu F, Cheng X (2014) Geochemical background and baseline value of chemical elements in urban soil in China (in chinese). Earth Sci Front 21:265–306. https://doi.org/10.13745/j.esf.2014.03.028
Chung IM, Han JG, Kong WS, Kim JK, An MJ, Lee JH, An YJ, Jung MY, Kim SH (2018) Regional discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom using the natural stable isotope ratios. Food Chem 264:92–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.138
Cozzolino D (2014) An overview of the use of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in aut-henticity andtraceability of cereals. Food Res Int 60:262–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.08.034
De Rijke E et al (2016) The use of δ2H and δ18O isotopic analyses combined with chemometrics as a traceability tool for the geographical origin of bell peppers. Food Chem 204:122–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.134
Drivelos SA, Georgiou CA (2012) Multi-element and multi-isotope-ratio analysis to determine the geographical origin of foods in the European Union. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 40:38–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2012.08.003
Gao H, Wang X, Zhang Q, Li S (2007) Characteristics of soil background value in Hetao area,Inner Mongolia (in chinese). Geol Resour 16:209–212. https://doi.org/10.13686/j.cnki.dzyzy.2007.03.010
Guo BL, Wei YM, Pan JR, Li Y (2010) Stable C and N isotope ratio analysis for regional g-eographical traceability of cattle in China. Food Chem 118:915–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.062
Hansen AM, Fromberg A, Frandsen HL (2014) Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen. J Agric Food Chem 62:10326–10331. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf503055k
Horacek M, Min J-S (2010) Discrimination of Korean beef from beef of other origin by stable isotope measurements. Food Chem 121:517–520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.12.018
Lamanna R, Cattivelli L, Miglietta ML, Troccoli A (2011) Geographical origin of durum wheat studied by 1H-NMR profiling. Magn Reson Chem 49:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrc.2695
Leyden JJ, Wassenaar LI, Hobson KA, Walker EG (2006) Stable hydrogen isotopes of bison bone collagen as a proxy for Holocene climate on the Northern Great Plains. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 239:87–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.01.009
Liu X, Xu S (2004) Study on the gelatin processing from chicken leg bone (in Chinese). Food Ferment Ind 9:48–53. https://doi.org/10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.2004.09.012
Luo D, Dong H, Luo H, Xian Y, Guo X, Wu Y (2015) Multi-element (C, N, H, O) stable isotope ratio analysis for determining the geographical origin of pure milk from different regions. Food Anal Methods 9:437–442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-015-0204-9
Luo R, Jiang T, Chen X, Zheng C, Liu H, Yang J (2019) Determination of geographic origin of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) using integrated stable isotope and multi-element analyses. Food Chem 274:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.104
Mahne Opatić A, Nečemer M, Lojen S, Vidrih R (2017) Stable isotope ratio and elemental co-mposition parameters in combination with discriminant analysis classification model to assign country of origin to commercial vegetables- a preliminary study. Food Control 80:252–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.05.010
Mariod AA, Adam HF (2013) Review: gelatin, source, extraction and industrial applications. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 12(2):135–147
Osorio MT, Moloney AP, Schmidt O, Monahan FJ (2011) Multielement isotope analysis of bovine muscle for determination of international geographical origin of meat. J Agric Food Chem 59:3285–3294. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1040433
Peng CY, Zhang YL, Song W, Lv YN, Xu Q, Zheng P, Zhang ZZ, Wan XC, Hou RY, Cai HM (2019) Using stable isotope signatures to delineate the geographic point-of-origin of Keemun black tea. J Sci Food Agric 99:2596–2601. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9475
Regenstein JM, Zhou P (2007) Collagen and gelatin from marine by-products. In: Shahidi F (ed) Maximising the value of marine by-products, 1st edn. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 279–303. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781845692087.2.279
Rogers KM (2008) Nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to determine the growing regimen of some organic and nonorganic supermarket produce from New Zealand. J Agr Food Chem 56:4078–4083. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800797w
Sayago A, Gonzalez-Dominguez R, Beltran R, Fernandez-Recamales A (2018) Combination of complementary data mining methods for geographical characterization of extra virgin o-live oils based on mineral composition. Food Chem 261:42–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.019
Sehrawat JS, Kaur J (2017) Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review. Anthropol Rev 80:243–258. https://doi.org/10.1515/anre-2017-0017
Sun S, Guo B, Wei Y, Fan M (2011) Multi-element analysis for determining the geographical origin of mutton from different regions of China. Food Chem 124:1151–1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.027
Sun S, Guo B, Wei Y (2016) Origin assignment by multi-element stable isotopes of lamb tissues. Food Chem 213:675–681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.013
Tatsch AC, Secchi ER, Botta S (2016) Effects of acidification, lipid removal and mathematical normalization on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions in beaked whale (Ziphiidae) bone. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 30:460–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7457
Tomaszewicz CN, Seminoff JA, Ramirez MD, Kurle CM (2015) Effects of demineralization on the stable isotope analysis of bone samples. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 29:1879–1888. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7295
Tsutaya T, Yoneda M (2015) Reconstruction of breastfeeding and weaning practices using stable isotope and trace element analyses: a review. Am J Phys Anthropol 156(Suppl 59):2–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22657
Turner Tomaszewicz CN, Seminoff JA, Avens L, Kurle CM, Fisher D (2016) Methods for sampling sequential annual bone growth layers for stable isotope analysis. Methods Ecol Evol 7:556–564. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12522
Vogel JC, Eglington B, Auret J (1990) Isotope fingerprints in elephant bone and ivory. Nature 346:747. https://doi.org/10.1038/346747a0
Wang J, Liu Z (1994) Vanadium distribution and its affecting factors in soils of China (in Chinese). Acta Pedofil Sinica 31:67–75
Wang B, Li X, Yuan H, Zhou H, Zhao Y (2009) Geochemistry of the main ions and Sr isotopic compositions in the lower reach of the Yellow River, North China (in Chinese). Environ Chem 28:876–882
Yuswan MH, Aizat WM, Lokman AA, Desa MNM, Mustafa S, Junoh NM, Yusof ZNB, Mohamed R, Mohmad Z, Lamasudin DU (2018) Chemometrics-assisted shotgun proteomics for establishment of potential peptide markers of non-halal pork (Sus scrofa) among halal beef and chicken. Food Anal Methods 11:3505–3515. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-018-1327-6
Yuswan MH et al (2019) Improved gel-enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry by chemometrics for halal proteomics. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 192:103825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2019.103825
Zaichick S, Zaichick V, Karandashev VK, Moskvina IR (2011) The effect of age and gender on 59 trace-element contents in human rib bone investigated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:41–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8837-4
Zhao Y, Zhang B, Chen G, Chen A, Yang S, Ye Z (2013) Tracing the geographic origin of beef in China on the basis of the combination of stable isotopes and multielement analysis. J Agric Food Chem 61:7055–7060. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf400947y
Zhao Y, Zhang B, Guo B, Wang D, Yang S (2015) Combination of multi-element and stable isotope analysis improved the traceability of chicken from four provinces of China. CyTA- J Food 14:163–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2015.1057235
The authors wish to thank Junliang Guo (Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for his assistance in collecting and pretreating the bone samples, and Professor Yulan Li (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for her assistance in elemental content analysis.
This work was supported by International Partnership Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 1A1111KYSB20180007) and “Transformational Technologies for Clean Energy and Demonstration”, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA21000000).
Conflict of Interest
Di Jiang declares no conflict of interest. Lin Du declares no conflict of interest. Yanchuan Guo declares no conflict of interest. Jifei Ma declares no conflict of interest. Xiaoyun Li declares no conflict of interest. Ling Han declares no conflict of interest. Yisheng Xu declares no conflict of interest. Yuan Qian declares no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Jiang, D., Du, L., Guo, Y. et al. Potential Use of Stable Isotope and Multi-element Analyses for Regional Geographical Traceability of Bone Raw Materials for Gelatin Production. Food Anal. Methods 13, 762–769 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01687-1
- Stable isotope
- Bone raw materials
- Traceability method