Development of a Rapid Method for Determination of Main Higher Alcohols in Fermented Alcoholic Beverages Based on Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

  • Zhilei Zhou
  • Wei Ni
  • Zhongwei Ji
  • Shuangping Liu
  • Xiao Han
  • Xiuting LiEmail author
  • Jian MaoEmail author


Higher alcohols are important flavor compounds in alcoholic beverages. A new method was developed to determinate the main higher alcohols based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with GC/MS. Huangjiu was selected as an example to develop the method. The optimal DLLME parameters were acquired: the sample was diluted one time with water, no pH adjustment was required, 600 μL dichloromethane as extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile as dispersant, 3.5 mL of sample volume, 1 min of extraction time and no salt addition. The performance of the method was satisfactory. The results obtained from DLLME were consistent with those from head space solid phase microextration (HS-SPME) and static headspace (SHS). In addition, DLLME is simpler and more time-saving compared with HS-SPME and SHS. These results indicated that the present method is satisfactory and suitable for determination of higher alcohols in Huangjiu, especially for routine inspection and batch analysis.


Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Higher alcohols Alcoholic beverages GC/MS 


Funding Information

The authors are grateful for the financial support from National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFD0400103, 2016YFD0400504, 2018YFD0400400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31571823), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (No. BK20161293, BK20171405), the National First-Class Discipline Program of Light Industry Technology and Engineering (LITE2018-13), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (JUSRP11810), the funding from Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health of Beijing Technology and Business University(20161041).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Zhilei Zhou declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wei Ni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhongwei Ji declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shuangping Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiao Han declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiuting Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jian Mao declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1668_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and NutritionJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human HealthBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Jiangnan University (Rugao) Food Biotechnology Research InstituteJiangsu Industrial Technology Research InstituteNantongChina
  4. 4.National Engineering Research Center for HuangjiuZhejiangChina

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