A Cost-Effective Spectrophotometric Method Based on Enzymatic Analysis of Jackfruit Latex Peroxidase for the Determination of Carbaryl and Its Metabolite 1-Napthol Residues in Organic and Chemical-Free Vegetables
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Carbaryl is a member of the carbamate family and commonly used as an insecticide. A cost-effective and reliable method to determine carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol was developed based on alkaline hydrolysis of carbaryl into 1-naphthol followed by enzymatic reaction with peroxidase, extracted from jackfruit latex in the presence of 4-aminoantipyrine and hydrogen peroxide under pH 6.0. The reaction product was pre-concentrated using ultrasound-assisted cloud-point extraction (UA-CPE) of Triton X-114 as surfactant prior to spectrophotometry at 500 nm. UA-CPE of jackfruit latex peroxidase achieved a calibration curve of carbaryl standard between 0.025 and 0.20 mg L−1 with r2 > 0.99. Detection and quantification limits were 9 and 24 μg L−1, respectively. Intra- and inter-day assay %RSDs were 5.15% (n = 7) and 7.24% (n = 4), respectively. An UA-QuEChERS technique was employed to ameliorate extraction performance of sample preparation. Recoveries between 81.9 and 102.4% were achieved. The proposed method was applied to determine carbaryl residues in organic and chemical-free vegetable samples. HPLC with UV detection was also performed for comparison and confirmation of measurements obtained by the proposed method.
KeywordsSpectrophotometry Enzymatic reaction Carbaryl Jackfruit latex peroxidase Ultrasound-assisted cloud-point extraction Ultrasound-assisted QuEChERS
K. Ponhong would like to thank the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University for financial support. Financial support from the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation is gratefully acknowledged.
K. Ponhong is financially supported by the Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University (Grant No. MSU-SC-15/2560). This research was financially supported by Mahasarakham University in 2018. P. Didpinrum and K. Grudpan are financially supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Research and Researchers for Industries (RRi) (Grant No. PHD59I0057 for P. Didpinrum), TRF through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (P. Didpinrum), Metrohm Siam Co., Ltd., and Thailand Research Found (TRF) Distinguished Research Professor Award Grantand research grant (DPG6080002 for K.Grudpan).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Pirom Didpinrum declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kraingkrai Ponhong declares that he has no conflict of interest. Watsaka Siriangkhawut declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sam-ang Supharoek declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kate Grudpan declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animalsperformed by any of the authors.
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