Magnetic graphene oxide–based solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the simultaneous preconcentration of four typical pesticide residues in fruit juice and pulp
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In the present work, magnetic graphene oxide–based solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of some widely used pesticide residues in juice and pulp of fruits before their determination with gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. In this method, an appropriate weight of a synthetic magnetic graphene oxide is added into fruit pulp and homogenized for a specified time. Then, the magnetic graphene oxide containing the adsorbed pesticides is separated from pulp using a magnet and the pesticides are desorbed using an appropriate volume of a water-miscible organic solvent. In the following, the eluent is mixed with a low water-soluble extraction solvent (at a microliter level) and rapidly dispersed into the fruit juice. The optimum conditions were found to be 150 mg of magnetic graphene oxide, 4.0 min for extraction time, 1.0 mL of acetonitrile as the eluent, 4.0 min for adsorption time, and 105 μL of chloroform as an extraction solvent. An excellent linearity was achieved in the range of 3.5–10,000 μg kg−1 (r2 ≥ 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 1.0–6.0 μg kg−1 and 3.5–20 μg kg−1, respectively. A good repeatability was obtained with the relative standard deviation ≤ 9%. Furthermore, extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were in the range of 69–81% and 340–399, respectively.
KeywordsMagnetic graphene oxide Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Fruit juice and pulp Pesticide Sample preparation
The authors are grateful to Research Council of the University of Tabriz for financial support.
Behruz Feriduni has received a research grant from the University of Tabriz.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Behruz Feriduni declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ali Mohebbi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mir Ali Farajzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maryam Namvar declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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