Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 12, pp 2742–2752 | Cite as

Magnetic graphene oxide–based solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the simultaneous preconcentration of four typical pesticide residues in fruit juice and pulp

  • Behruz FeriduniEmail author
  • Ali Mohebbi
  • Mir Ali Farajzadeh
  • Maryam Namvar


In the present work, magnetic graphene oxide–based solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of some widely used pesticide residues in juice and pulp of fruits before their determination with gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. In this method, an appropriate weight of a synthetic magnetic graphene oxide is added into fruit pulp and homogenized for a specified time. Then, the magnetic graphene oxide containing the adsorbed pesticides is separated from pulp using a magnet and the pesticides are desorbed using an appropriate volume of a water-miscible organic solvent. In the following, the eluent is mixed with a low water-soluble extraction solvent (at a microliter level) and rapidly dispersed into the fruit juice. The optimum conditions were found to be 150 mg of magnetic graphene oxide, 4.0 min for extraction time, 1.0 mL of acetonitrile as the eluent, 4.0 min for adsorption time, and 105 μL of chloroform as an extraction solvent. An excellent linearity was achieved in the range of 3.5–10,000 μg kg−1 (r2 ≥ 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 1.0–6.0 μg kg−1 and 3.5–20 μg kg−1, respectively. A good repeatability was obtained with the relative standard deviation ≤ 9%. Furthermore, extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were in the range of 69–81% and 340–399, respectively.


Magnetic graphene oxide Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Fruit juice and pulp Pesticide Sample preparation 



The authors are grateful to Research Council of the University of Tabriz for financial support.

Funding Information

Behruz Feriduni has received a research grant from the University of Tabriz.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Behruz Feriduni declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ali Mohebbi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mir Ali Farajzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maryam Namvar declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Analysis Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  3. 3.Engineering FacultyNear East UniversityMersinTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

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