Advertisement

Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 12, pp 2753–2763 | Cite as

Determination of the Water Activities of Wines and Spirits

  • Matthew C. Allan
  • Erica N. Grush
  • Bartek P. Rajwa
  • Christian E. Butzke
  • Lisa J. MauerEmail author
Article
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

Water activity (aw) is an important property of foods, with correlations to safety, quality, and shelf-life. The presence of high concentrations of non-water volatiles has been problematic for analytical aw instruments, thereby limiting potential applications of aw measurements for quality assessments of fermented beverages and foods. The objectives of this study were to measure the aw values (aws) of wines and spirits using a tunable diode laser instrument (AquaLab TDL, METER Group, Inc.), reported to be unaffected by volatiles such as ethanol, and determine the effects of ethanol and residual sugar (R.S.) concentrations on the aw. The aws of commercial wines (n = 678), other liquors (n = 42), and model solutions containing controlled concentrations of ethanol and sugars were measured using the TDL at 25 °C. The alcohol by volume (ABV) was determined by electric ebulliometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) methods, and sugars were determined using a FTIR method. The aws of wines ranged from 0.860 to 0.968 (average 0.940 aw), the aws of spirits ranged from 0.750 to 0.909 aw, and grain alcohol had the lowest aw at 0.365 and the highest ABV (95%). The Norrish equation, accounting for ethanol, glucose, fructose, and sucrose concentrations, resulted in predicted aws of wines that were 0.012 ± 0.007 higher than the measured aws. Ethanol had a greater effect on the aw of wines than sugar contents, and the ~ 0.012 lower than predicted aws of wines were attributed to the effects of additional solutes (glycerol, acids), that were not included in the Norrish equation, on lowering the aw.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Water activity Wine Ethanol Sugar Norrish equation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Matthew Allan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Erica Grush declares that she has no conflict of interest. Bartek Rajwa declares that he has no conflict of interest. Christian Butzke declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lisa Mauer declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable in this article.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1632_MOESM1_ESM.docx (34 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 33 kb)

References

  1. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (2018) Tax and fee rates. https://www.ttb.gov/tax_audit/taxrates.shtml#Wine18
  2. Allan M, Mauer LJ (2017) Dataset of water activity measurements of alcohol: water solutions using a tunable diode laser. Data Brief 12:364–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamforth CW (2008) Food, fermentation and micro-organisms. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer R, Nieuwoudt H, Bauer FF, Kossmann J, Koch KR, Esbensen KH (2008) FTIR spectroscopy for grape and wine analysis. Anal Chem 80:1371–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boulton RB, Singleton VL, Bisson LF, Kunkee RE (1999) Yeast and biochemistry of ethanol fermentation. In: Principles and practices of winemaking. Springer US, Boston, pp 102–192.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6255-6_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brick J (2006) Standardization of alcohol calculations in research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:1276–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butzke C (2012) Wine appreciation, 2nd edn. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  8. Butzke CE (2002) 2000/2001 survey of winery laboratory proficiency. Am J Enol Vitic 53:163–169Google Scholar
  9. Butzke CE, Ebeler SE (1999) Survey of analytical methods and winery laboratory proficiency. Am J Enol Vitic 50:461–465Google Scholar
  10. Campbell GS, Lewis DP (1998) Water activity and dew point temperature measuring apparatus and method. United States Patent 5,816,704Google Scholar
  11. CFR (2018a) Alcoholic content. Code of Federal RegulationsGoogle Scholar
  12. CFR (2018b) Production of wine. Code of Federal RegulationsGoogle Scholar
  13. CFR (2018c) The standards of identity. Code of Federal RegulationsGoogle Scholar
  14. Chirife J, Favetto G, Fontán CF (1982) Water activity of fructose solutions in the intermediate moisture range. Lebensm Wiss Technol 15:150–160Google Scholar
  15. Chirife J, Fontán CF, Benmergui E (1980) The prediction of water activity in aqueous solutions in connection with intermediate moisture foods IV. Aw prediction in aqueous non electrolyte solutions. Int J Food Sci Technol 15:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Devore JL (2011) Probability and statistics for engineering and the sciences. 8th edn. Cengage Learning, MansonGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernández-Novales J, López M-I, Sánchez M-T, Morales J, González-Caballero V (2009) Shortwave-near infrared spectroscopy for determination of reducing sugar content during grape ripening, winemaking, and aging of white and red wines. Food Res Int 42:285–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flood AE, Johns MR, White ET (1996) Mutarotation of d-fructose in aqueous-ethanolic solutions and its influence on crystallisation. Carbohydr Res 288:45–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(96)90775-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fontana AJ (1998) Water activity: why it is important for food safety. In: International conference on food safety. pp 177–185Google Scholar
  20. Horn P (1990) Apparatus and method for the measuring of dew points. Switzerland Patent 4,898,475Google Scholar
  21. Howe PA, Ebeler SE, Sacks GL (2015) Review of thirteen years of CTS winery laboratory collaborative data. Am J Enol Vitic 66:321–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Indy International Wine Competition (2019) Wine class listing. http://www.indyinternational.org/competition/classes/. Accessed 7.3.2019
  23. International Organisation of Vine and Wine (2018) OIV statistical report on world Vitiviniculture. http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/6371/oiv-statistical-report-on-world-vitiviniculture-2018.pdf
  24. Jackson RS (2008a) 6 - chemical constituents of grapes and wine. In: Wine Science (Third Edition). Academic Press, San Diego, pp 270–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373646-8.50009-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jackson RS (2008b) 7 - fermentation. In: Wine Science (Third Edition). Academic Press, San Diego, pp 332–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373646-8.50010-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson RS (2008c) 10 - wine Laws, authentication, and geography. In: Wine Science (Third Edition). Academic Press, San Diego, pp 577–640.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373646-8.50013-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jeffery DW, Wilkinson KL (2014) Wine. In: Bamforth CW, Ward RE (eds) The Oxford handbook of food fermentations. Oxford Handbooks, New York, pp 54–147Google Scholar
  28. Jones RP, Greenfield PF (1986) Role of water activity in ethanol fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng 28:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laboratoires Dujarden-Salleron (2008) Electric Ebulliometer with electronic probe brochureGoogle Scholar
  30. Labuza TP, Altunakar B (2007) Water activity prediction and moisture sorption isotherms. In: Barbosa-CÃ GV, Anthony J. Fontana Jr, Shelly J. Schmidt, and Theodore P. Labuza (ed) Water Activity in Foods-Fundamentals and Applications Blackwell Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists, pp 109–154. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470376454.ch5
  31. Lee I, Park K, Lee J (2013) Precision density and volume contraction measurements of ethanol–water binary mixtures using suspended microchannel resonators. Sensors Actuators A Phys 194:62–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.01.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu HF, Wu BH, Fan PG, Li SH, Li LS (2006) Sugar and acid concentrations in 98 grape cultivars analyzed by principal component analysis. J Sci Food Agric 86:1526–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Max J-J, Chapados C (2007) Glucose and fructose hydrates in aqueous solution by IR spectroscopy. J Phys Chem A 111:2679–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McGovern P et al (2017) Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:E10309–E10318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. METER Group (2013) Aqualab 4TE-Operator's manual. Pullman, WAGoogle Scholar
  36. METER Group (2015) TDL tunable diode laser water activity Meter-Operator's manual. Pullman, WAGoogle Scholar
  37. Miyawaki O, Saito A, Matsuo T, Nakamura K (1997) Activity and activity coefficient of water in aqueous solutions and their relationships with solution structure parameters. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61:466–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moreira JL, Santos L (2004) Spectroscopic interferences in Fourier transform infrared wine analysis. Anal Chim Acta 513:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Norrish R (1966) An equation for the activity coefficients and equilibrium relative humidities of water in confectionery syrups. Int J Food Sci Technol 1:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Novasina AG (2007) LabMaster-aw operating instructions. LachenGoogle Scholar
  41. Patz CD, Blieke A, Ristow R, Dietrich H (2004) Application of FT-MIR spectrometry in wine analysis. Anal Chim Acta 513:81–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.02.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Raoult F-M (1887) Loi générale des tensions de vapeur des dissolvants. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 104:1430–1433Google Scholar
  43. Reid DS (2007) Water activity: fundamentals and relationships. In: Barbosa-Canovas GV, Fontana AJ, Schmidt SJ, Labuza TP (eds) Water activity in foods: fundamentals and applications. First edn. Blackwell Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  44. Rotronic AG (2009) AwTherm manual vol version 1.1. BassersdorfGoogle Scholar
  45. Rüegg M, Blanc B (1981) The water activity of honey and related sugar solutions. Lebensm Wiss Technol 14:1–6Google Scholar
  46. Schmidt SJ (2004) Water and solids mobility in foods. Adv Food Nutr Res 48:1–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schmidt SJ, Fontana Jr A (2007) Water Activity Values of Select Food Ingredients and Products. In: Barbosa-CÃ GV, Anthony J. Fontana Jr, Shelly J. Schmidt, and Theodore P. Labuza (ed) Water Activity in Foods-Fundamentals and Applications Blackwell Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists, pp 413–414Google Scholar
  48. SDBSWeb (2018) Ethyl Alcohol. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. https://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp
  49. Suntola TS (1979) Capacitive humidity transducer. Finland patent 4,164,868,Google Scholar
  50. The Australian Wine Research Institute (2018) Measurement of residual sugar in wine. https://www.awri.com.au/industry_support/winemaking_resources/laboratory_methods/chemical/rs/#titration
  51. Weast RC (1988) Handbook of chemistry and physics. 1st student edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  52. Wilker KL (1992) Hydrolysis of sucrose in eastern US table wines. Am J Enol Vitic 43:381–383Google Scholar
  53. Yano T, Aimi T, Nakano Y, Tamai M (1997) Prediction of the concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid in the culture broth of a rice vinegar fermentation using near-infrared spectroscopy. J Ferment Bioeng 84:461–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhu H, Yuen C, Grant DJ (1996) Influence of water activity in organic solvent + water mixtures on the nature of the crystallizing drug phase. 1. Theophylline. Int J Pharm 135:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zoecklein BW, Fugelsang KC, Gump BH, Nury FS (1995) Labratory procedures. In: Wine analysis and production. Springer, pp 310–516Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food SciencePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Bindley Bioscience CenterWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations