Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 12, pp 2699–2708 | Cite as

In situ rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry method for real-time discrimination of Pelodiscus sinensis in different culturing modes without sample preparation

  • Qing Shen
  • Jie Wang
  • Shiyan Li
  • Wei Rao
  • Yang Wang
  • Haixing WangEmail author


Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a recently developed technology for real-time lipidomics profiling of biological tissues without time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a REIMS method was established for the differentiation of Pelodiscus sinensis cultured in two distinct modes, the organic ones cultured ecologically in an outdoor pond, and the greenhouse ones cultured in the greenhouse. The tissue samples were analyzed directly using an electrosurgical monopolar cutting handpiece, and the aerosol generated was simultaneously transferred into the mass spectrometer by a Venturi pump. Finally, two turtle groups were successfully differentiated with the REIMS method, and the markers for identification were detected. The results of method validation and the successful application of this method indicated that the well-established real-time REIMS technique is rapid, high-throughput, efficient, and reliable in detecting the food fraud of P. sinensis.


Real-time discrimination Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) Lipidomics Pelodiscus sinensis Food fraud 



This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY19C190001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601542), the Quality & Safety of Aquatic Products Technical Support Team (QS2017003), and the Zhejiang Province Public Welfare Technology Application Research Project (LGF19H180013).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Qing Shen declares that there is no conflict of interest. Shiyan Li declares that there is no conflict of interest. Wei Rao declares that there is no conflict of interest. Yang Wang declares that there is no conflict of interest. Zhiyuan Dai declares that there is no conflict of interest. Haixing Wang declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Department of AnesthesiologyThe Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Province Joint Key Laboratory of Aquatic Products Processing, Institute of SeafoodZhejiang Gongshang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Aquatic Products Quality Inspection Center of Zhejiang ProvinceHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Waters CorporationShanghaiChina

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