Determination of Trace Elements in Meat and Fish Samples by MIP OES Using Solid-Phase Extraction
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A new procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in fish and meat (bovine and ovine) samples by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) was developed. The procedure is based on separation and preconcentration of analytes by solid-phase extraction (SPE), composed from the functionalization of silica with p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA-MCM-41). Factors that directly affect the SPE procedure as pH, buffer concentration, sample flow, and elution flow were evaluated through a factorial design (24). The optimized conditions employed at the proposed procedure were as follows: pH 9.5, 0.01 mol L−1 borate buffer concentration, sampling, and 6.0 mL min−1 of elution flow. Linear models were treated regarding the weighted regression, an optional strategy of the equipment, the weighted fit. The proposed procedure provides limits of quantification (LOQ) of 9.6, 2.8, 0.1, 0.2, 1.5, 13.3, and 3.9 μg g−1 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Accuracy was assessed from the analysis of the certified reference materials (CRM) of dogfish liver (DOLT-5, NRC) and bovine liver (1577c, NIST), and a reference material of bovine liver (RM-Agro E3001a, EMBRAPA). The procedure was applied in local market meats (bovine and ovine) and fish (tilapia) samples, and it showed adequate for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn by MIP OES.
KeywordsMIP OES SPE Factorial design Fish Meat Trace elements
This study was financially supported by the Brazilian agencies Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (2014/05679-4, 2017/06775-5, 2018/18894-1, and 2018/26145-9) and the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES). A.R.A.N. and J.M.I. were thankful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for researchship (307639/2014-2) and fellowship (141315/2017-2). We also thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil) for I.P.S. fellowship (finance code 001). This is a contribution of the National Institute of Advanced Analytical Science and Technology (INCTAA).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This is an original research article that has neither been published previously or considered presently for publication elsewhere. All authors named in the manuscript are entitled to the authorship and have approved the final version of the submitted manuscript.
Conflict of Interest
Ivero Pita de Sá declares that he has no conflict of interest. Julymar Marcano Higuera declares that she has no conflict of interest. Vinicius Câmara Costa declares that he has no conflict of interest. José Arnaldo Santana Costa declares that he has no conflict of interest. Caio Marcio Paranhos da Silva declares that he has no conflict of interest, and Ana Rita Araujo Nogueira declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Informed consents were obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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