Geographical discrimination of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using ICP-MS elemental data and class modeling of PDO Zafferano dell’Aquila produced in Abruzzo (Italy)
PDO (protected designation of origin) Zafferano dell’Aquila (AQ), Iranian (IR), and commercial (CS) saffron samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS data of 30 elements were handled by unsupervised (principal component analysis (PCA)) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis (LDA)) multivariate statistical methods to identify a subset of discriminant variables useful for geographical classification. Moreover, class modeling of AQ saffron was performed by both UNEQ (unequal disperses classes) and SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy) methods. A good differentiation of the AQ, IR, and CS samples was obtained by the LDA based on four selected elements: Sr, Ca, Mo, and Fe. A UNEQ class model for the PDO AQ saffron based on the above four elements provided 100% sensitivity (all authentic AQ saffron were accepted) and 100% specificity (all IR and CS were rejected), while slightly worse results were obtained using the SIMCA (89% sensitivity and 96% specificity).
KeywordsSaffron Elemental analysis Classification Class-modeling Authentication
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Angelo Antonio D’Archivio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Laura Di Vacri declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marco Ferrante declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Anna Maggi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Stefano Nisi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fabrizio Ruggieri declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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