Trace Enantioselective Determination of Imidazolinone Herbicides in Various Food Matrices Using a Modified QuEChERS Method and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
A modified QuEChERS method was developed for simultaneous enantioselective determination of three imidazolinone herbicides (imazethapyr, imazamox, and imazapic) in two oil crops (soybeans and peanuts) and three food crops (wheat, maize, and rice) by chiral reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sample extraction was performed with 20 mL of methanol adjusted to pH 4 with 1% aqueous acetic acid. The supernatant was then cleaned with a primary secondary amine and graphitized carbon black. Several significant factors affecting the performance of the method were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9931) and acceptable recoveries (63.5–111.5%, relative standard deviation ≤ 22.7%) were obtained for each enantiomer. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.34 to 1.5 μg/kg and 1.1 to 5.0 μg/kg, respectively. For all three imidazolinone herbicides, the S-enantiomers eluted before the R-enantiomers. Finally, several food samples (soybeans, peanuts, wheat, maize, or rice) were analyzed by this method. The enantiomers of the three imidazolinone pesticides (imazethapyr, imazamox, and imazapic) were not found in these samples at the microgram per kilogram level.
KeywordsImidazolinone herbicide Enantioselective quantification QuEChERS pretreatment UPLC–MS/MS
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31101464, 31872000).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Rui Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mingfeng Hu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kunfeng Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hui Zhang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xuesheng Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Huihua Tan declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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