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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 2509–2517 | Cite as

Identification of Suitable Locus for Specific Detection of Biological Adulterants of Saffron

  • Sangita BansalEmail author
  • Sujata Thakur
  • Manisha Mangal
  • Anupam K. Mangal
  • R. K. Gupta
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Saffron being one of the highest priced commodities and having high market potential is often adulterated with other biological adulterants which have resemblance to saffron and are often difficult to detect by conventional methods. To devise an efficient method for biological adulterant (safflower/Calendula) detection in saffron, three different cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA barcodes namely ITS2, rbcLa, and psbA-trnH and already developed species/adulterant-specific PCR-based SCAR markers namely SAFL-4, SAFL-40, ScCt131, ScCO390, and ScCs263 were tested in the present study. Adulteration of safflower (0.5%) and Calendula (3%) could be detected in saffron: safflower/Calendula admixtures with the primer pairs SAFL-40 and ScCo390, respectively. In multiplex PCR with SCAR markers for simultaneous detection of safflower and saffron, detection of up to 7% safflower adulteration was possible in admixtures. Among the three barcoding loci, the barcode psbA-trnH allowed the detection of safflower and Calendula adulteration in saffron by producing different size amplicons, whereas barcode ITS2 produced amplicons of similar sizes and rbcLa did not give reproducible results.

Keywords

Saffron Adulteration Authentication DNA barcode SCAR Detection method 

Abbreviations

AP-PCR

Arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction

BLAST

Basic local alignment search tool

CTAB-SDS

CetylTrimethyl ammonium bromide-sodium dodecyl sulfate

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

dNTPs

Deoxynucleotide triphosphates

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

Indels

Insertions or deletions

ITS

Internal transcribed spacer

matK

Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase

MUSCLE

Multiple sequence comparison by log-expectation

NCBI

National center for biotechnology information

NIR

Near-infrared

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

psbA

Photosystem II protein D1

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

rbcL

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit

SCAR

Sequence characterized amplified regions

TAE

Tris base, acetic acid, and EDTA

TE

Tris-EDTA

trnH

tRNA-histidine

UPGMA

Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean

UV–VIS

Ultraviolet–visible

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), New Delhi (India), for providing financial assistance and necessary facilities for the present paper (Project code PB01/2013–14).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sangita Bansal declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sujata Thakur declares that she has no conflict of interest. Manisha Mangal declares that she has no conflict of interest. Anupam K. Mangal declares that she has no conflict of interest. R. K. Gupta declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangita Bansal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sujata Thakur
    • 2
  • Manisha Mangal
    • 3
  • Anupam K. Mangal
    • 4
  • R. K. Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.TCCUICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic ResourcesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR—Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering & TechnologyLudhianaIndia
  3. 3.ICAR—Indian Agriculture Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS)New DelhiIndia

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