Advertisement

Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 2562–2571 | Cite as

Phthalates and Bisphenol-A Determination and Release from Different Beverage Plastic Containers by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and GC-IT/MS Analysis

  • Ivan Notardonato
  • Carmela Protano
  • Matteo Vitali
  • Pasquale AvinoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Phthalates and bisphenol-A are molecules widely used in packaging because they increase the plastic malleability and workability but they show the tendency to migrate or dissociate from plastics. Recently, researchers raised the alarm to have found their traces in water samples of plastic bottles left at high outdoor temperatures for a long time. The paper would like to show a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method for the simultaneous determination of phthalates and bisphenol-A in drinking water, based on the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The dispersion is favored by means of ultrasonic bath and stirring magnetic plate, without dispersive solvent. The method presents an average R2 0.993 in the range 10–5000 ng mL-1, a limit of detection below 1.2 ng mL-1, and a limit of quantification below 7.7 ng mL-1. The release of such compounds from different beverage containers (6 plastic bottles, 6 canteens, and 3 newborn feeding bottles) has been analyzed. The release kinetics from the bottles are studied over 2 months, whereas over 6 h for the other containers. Only 2 compounds have been found in a plastic bottle and in a canteen bottle, with concentrations ranging between 24 and 117 ng mL-1.

Keywords

Phthalates Bisphenol-A plastics Analytical method Extraction procedure GC-MS Water Bottles Exposure Release 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thanks Mr. Giuseppe Ianiri for his help in the sample GC-MS processing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ivan Notardonato declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carmela Protano declares that she has no conflict of interest. Matteo Vitali declares that he has no conflict of interest. Pasquale Avino declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Al-Shukri SM, Mahmood AT, Al-Hanbali OA (2011) Thermal properties, adhesive strength, and optical transparency of cyclolinear poly(aryloxycyclotriphosphazenes). J Appl Polym Sci 122:1058–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avino P, Russo MV (2018) A comprehensive review of analytical methods for determining persistent organic pollutants in air, soil, water and waste. Curr Org Chem 22:939–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow SM (2009) Risk assessment of food-contact materials: past experience and future challenges. Food Addit Contam A 26:1526–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley EL, Burden RA, Leon I, Mortimer DN, Speck DR, Castle L (2013) Determination of phthalate diesters in foods. Food Addit Contam A 30:722–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun JM (2017) Early-life exposure to EDCs: role in childhood obesity and neurodevelopment. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlstedt F, Jönsson BG, Bornehag CG (2013) PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air 23:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Celeiro M, Lamas JP, Garcia-Jares C, Llompart M (2015) Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes. J Chromatogr A 1384:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang JW, Yan BR, Chang MH, Tseng SH, Kao YM, Chen JC, Lee CC (2014) Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach. Environ Pollut 189:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cinelli G, Avino P, Notardonato I, Centola A, Russo MV (2013) Rapid analysis of six phthalate ester in wine by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector or gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 769:72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cirillo T, Lani G, Castaldi MA, Dipaola L, Fasano E, Esposito F, Scognamiglio G, Francesco FD, Cobellis L (2015) Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas. J Agric Food Chem 63:3303–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Commission Regulation (2011) Regulation on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. Off J EU, 10. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2011/10/oj
  12. Erythropel HC, Maric M, Nicell JA, Leask RL, Yargeau V (2014) Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:9967–9981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gärtner S, Balski M, Koch M, Nehls I (2009) Analysis and migration of phthalates in infant food packed in recycled paperboard. J Agric Food Chem 57:10675–10681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. González-Castro MI, Olea-Serrano MF, Rivas-Velasco AM, Medina-Rivero E, Ordonez-Acevedo LG, De León-Rodríguez A (2011) Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86:627–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo Y, Zhang Z, Liu L, Li Y-F, Ren N, Kannan K (2012) Occurrence and profiles of phthalates in foodstuffs from China, and their implications for human exposures. J Agric Food Chem 60:6913–6919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hauser R, Calafat AM (2005) Phthalates and human health. Occup Environ Med 62:806–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heudorf U, Mersch-Sundermann V, Angerer J (2007) Phthalates: toxicology and exposure. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Knoll JK (1985) Estimation of the limit of detection in chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 3:422–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mertens B, Van Hoeck E, Blaude M-N, Simon C, Onghena M, Van-Dermarken T, Van Langenhove K, Demaegdt H, Vandermeiren K, Covaci A, Scippo M-L, Elskens M, Van Loco J (2016) Evaluation of the potential health risks of substances migrating from polycarbonate replacement baby bottles. Food Chem Toxicol 97:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Net S, Sempéré R, Delmont A, Paluselli A, Ouddane B (2015) Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices. Environ Sci Technol 49:4019–4035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Notardonato I, Russo MV, Avino P (2018) Phthalates and bisphenol-A residues in water samples: an innovative analytical approach. Rend Lincei – Sci Fis 29:831–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Petersen JH, Breindahl T (2000) Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae. Food Addit Contam 17:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rezaee M, Assadi Y, Hosseini MRM, Aghaee E, Ahmadi F, Berijani S (2006) Determination of organic compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. J Chromatogr A 1116:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Riesz P, Berdahl D, Christman CL (1985) Free radical generation by ultrasound in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions. Environ Health Persp 64:233–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rudel R, Perovich L (2008) Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air. Atmos Environ 43:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Russo MV, Notardonato I, Cinelli G, Avino P (2011) Evaluation of an analytical method for determining phthalate esters in wine samples by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometer detector. Anal Bioanal Chem 402:1373–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Russo MV, Notardonato I, Avino P, Cinelli G (2014a) Fast determination of phthalate ester residues in soft drinks and light alcoholic beverages by ultrasound/vortex assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. RSC Adv 4:59655–59663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Russo MV, Notardonato I, Avino P, Cinelli G (2014b) Determination of phthalate esters at trace levels in light alcoholic drinks and soft drinks by XAD-2 adsorbent and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap-mass spectrometry detection. Anal Meth 6:7030–7037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Russo MV, Avino P, Perugini L, Notardonato I (2015) Extraction and GC-MS analysis of phthalate esters in food matrices: a review. RSC Adv 5:37023–37043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Russo MV, Avino P, Notardonato I (2016a) Fast analysis of phthalates in freeze-dried baby foods by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1474:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Russo MV, Avino P, Perugini L, Notardonato I (2016b) Fast analysis of nine PAHs in beer by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. RSC Adv 6:13920–13927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Russo MV, Avino P, Notardonato I (2017) PAH residues in honey by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid micro-extraction followed by GC-FID/IT-MS. Food Anal Method 10:2132–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schecter A, Lorber M, Guo Y, Wu Q, Yun SH, Kannan K, Hommel M, Imran N, Hynan LS, Cheng D, Colacino JA, Birnbaum LS (2013) Phthalate concentrations and dietary exposure from food purchased in New York State. Environ Health Perspect 121:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shea KM (2003) Pediatric exposure and potential toxicity of phthalate plasticizers. Pediatrics 111:1467–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Simoneau C, Van den Eede L, Valzacchi S (2012) Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate. Food Addit Contam A 29:469–480Google Scholar
  36. Tsumura Y, Ishimitsu S, Kaihara A, Yoshii K, Tonogai Y (2002) Phthalates, adipates, citrate and some of the other plasticizers detected in Japanese retail foods: a survey. J Health Sci 48:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilkes EC, Summers WJ, Daniels AC, Berard TM (2008) PVC Handbook. Hanser Fachbuchverlag, Munchen ISBN 978-3446227149Google Scholar
  38. Yano K, Hirosawa N, Sakamoto Y, Katayama H, Moriguchi T, Asaoka K (2005) Phthalate levels in baby milk powders sold in several countries. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:373–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zamkowska D, Karwacka A, Jurewicz J, Radwan M (2018) Environmental exposure to non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals and semen quality: an overview of the current epidemiological evidence. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 31:377–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Zgoła-Grześkowiak A, Grześkowiak T (2011) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. TrAC 30:1382–1399Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences (DiAAA)University of MoliseCampobassoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations