Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 2562–2571 | Cite as

Phthalates and Bisphenol-A Determination and Release from Different Beverage Plastic Containers by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and GC-IT/MS Analysis

  • Ivan Notardonato
  • Carmela Protano
  • Matteo Vitali
  • Pasquale AvinoEmail author


Phthalates and bisphenol-A are molecules widely used in packaging because they increase the plastic malleability and workability but they show the tendency to migrate or dissociate from plastics. Recently, researchers raised the alarm to have found their traces in water samples of plastic bottles left at high outdoor temperatures for a long time. The paper would like to show a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method for the simultaneous determination of phthalates and bisphenol-A in drinking water, based on the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The dispersion is favored by means of ultrasonic bath and stirring magnetic plate, without dispersive solvent. The method presents an average R2 0.993 in the range 10–5000 ng mL-1, a limit of detection below 1.2 ng mL-1, and a limit of quantification below 7.7 ng mL-1. The release of such compounds from different beverage containers (6 plastic bottles, 6 canteens, and 3 newborn feeding bottles) has been analyzed. The release kinetics from the bottles are studied over 2 months, whereas over 6 h for the other containers. Only 2 compounds have been found in a plastic bottle and in a canteen bottle, with concentrations ranging between 24 and 117 ng mL-1.


Phthalates Bisphenol-A plastics Analytical method Extraction procedure GC-MS Water Bottles Exposure Release 



The authors would like to thanks Mr. Giuseppe Ianiri for his help in the sample GC-MS processing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ivan Notardonato declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carmela Protano declares that she has no conflict of interest. Matteo Vitali declares that he has no conflict of interest. Pasquale Avino declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences (DiAAA)University of MoliseCampobassoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

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