Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 203–211 | Cite as

Development of a Method Based on Slurry Sampling for Determining Ca, Fe, and Zn in Coffee Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

  • Ariadna Chaves Trindade
  • Sulene Alves Araújo
  • Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim
  • Darci Santos Silva
  • Juscelia Pereira Santos Alves
  • Joabes Santos Trindade
  • Rosane Moura Aguiar
  • Marcos Almeida BezerraEmail author


Coffee is a source of mineral nutrients and, therefore, analytical procedures are needed for fast and reliable determination of metals in this matrix. This work proposes the development of a procedure for the determination of calcium, iron, and zinc in powdered coffee using slurry sampling and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The slurry liquid optimization was carried out using a constrained mixture design. Thus, for a mass of 0.1 g of the sample, this method allowed the determination of iron, calcium, and zinc with the limits of detection and quantification of 11 and 36, 18 and 60, and 10 and 32 μg g−1, respectively, and precision expressed as percent relative standard deviation (% RSD, 0.5 mg g−1, N = 8), of 1.5, 1.2, and 2.1%. Accuracy was evaluated by (i) comparison of the generated values by the proposed method with that obtained by sample decomposition in acid media and (ii) analysis of a certified reference material (apple leaves NIST 1515). This method was applied to the analysis of industrialized and handcrafted coffees. The levels of iron, calcium, and zinc were found in coffees ranging from 41.5 to 186.0, 59.8 to 426.8, 38.6 to 58.7 mg g−1, respectively. The application of the t test for the results, with a confidence level of 95%, showed no significant difference between the results generated by the proposed method and by digestion in acid media.


Coffee Slurry sampling Mixture design Calcium Iron Zinc 


Funding Information

This work received financial support from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ariadna Chaves Trindade declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sulene Alves Araújo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim declares that he has no conflict of interest. Darci Santos Silva declares that he has no conflict of interest. Juscelia Pereira Santos Alves declares that he has no conflict of interest. Joabes Santos Trindade declares that he has no conflict of interest. Rosane Moura Aguiar declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marcos Almeida Bezerra declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. Alves FL, Jardim WF, Cadore S, Arruda MAS, Smichowski P, Marrero J (2001) Use of slurry sampling in the determination of Cu and Zn in Antarctic limpets and Ni in river sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Quim Nova 24:756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amorim FAC, Costa VC, Guedes WN, Sá IP, Santos MC, Silva EGP, Lima DC (2016) Multivariate optimization of method of slurry sampling for determination of iron and zinc in starch samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 9:1719–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashu R, Chandravanshi BS (2011) Concentration levels of metals in commercially available Ethiopian roasted coffee powders and their infusions. Bull Chem Soc Ethiopia 25:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bezerra MA, Santelli RE, Oliveira EP, Villar LS, Escaleira LA (2008) Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 76:965–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bezerra MA, Ferreira SLC, Novaes CG, Santos AMP, Valasques GS, Mata Cerqueira UMF, Alves JPS (2019) Simultaneous optimization of multiple responses and its application in analytical chemistry – a review. Talanta 194:941–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandão GC, Gomes DP, Matos GD (2012) Development of an analytical method based in the slurry sampling for iron determination in fortified milk powder by HR-CS FAAS. Food Anal Methods 5:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns DT, Tweed L, Walker MJ (2017) Ground roast coffee: review of analytical strategies to estimate geographic origin, species authenticity and adulteration by dilution. Food Anal Methods 7:2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fernandes AP, Santos MC, Lemos SG, Ferreira MMC, Nogueira ARA, Nóbrega JA (2005) Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits. Spectrochim Acta B 60:717–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferreira SLC, Miró M, Silva EGP, Matos GD, Reis PS, Brandao GC, Santos WNL, Duarte AT, Vale MGR, Araujo RGO (2010) Slurry sampling—an analytical strategy for the determination of metals and metalloids by spectroanalytical techniques. Appl Spectrosc Rev 45:44–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Francová A, Drábek O, Havlik J, Szakova J, Vanek A (2009) The effect of beverage preparation method on aluminium content in coffee infusions. J Inorg Biochem 103:1480–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geleijnse J (2008) Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective. J Vasc Health Risk Manag Wageningen 4:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grembecka M, Malinowska E, Szefer P (2007) Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition. Sci Total Environ 383:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gure A, Chandravanshi BS, Godeto TW (2018) Assessment of metals in roasted indigenous coffee varieties of Ethiopia. B Chem Soc Ethiopia 32:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krug FJ, Rocha FRP (2016) Métodos de preparo de amostras para análise elementar, EdiSBQ, 572 pGoogle Scholar
  15. Magalhães CEC, Arruda MAZ (1998) Amostragem de suspensões: Emprego da técnica na análise direta de amostras. Quim Nova 21:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martin MJ, Pablos F, Gonzáles AG (1998) Characterization of green coffee varieties according to their metal content. Anal Chim Acta 358:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin MJ, Pablos F, Gonzáles AG (1999) Characterization of arabica and robusta roasted coffee varieties and mixture resolution according to their metal content. Food Chem 66:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miranda K, Filho ERP (2013) Sequential determination of Cd, Cu and Pb in tea leaves by slurry introduction to thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 6:1607–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miranda K, Vieira AL, Bechlin MA, Fortunato FM, Virgilio A, Ferreira EC, Gomes Neto JA (2016) Determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Se, and Zn in foodstuffs by atomic spectrometry after sample preparation using a low-cost closed-vessel conductively heated digestion system. Food Anal Methods 9:1887–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Muñiz-Valencia R, Jurado JM, Ceballos-Magaña SG, Alcázar A, Reyes J (2013) Geographical differentiation of green coffees according to their metal content by means of supervised pattern recognition techniques. Food Anal Methods 6:1271–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oleszczuk NC, Silva JT, Messias M, Korn MGA, Welz B (2007) Method development for the determination of manganese, cobalt and copper in green coffee comparing direct solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Talanta 73:862–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oliveira M, Casal S, Morais S, Alves C, Dias F, Ramos S, Mendes E, Matos CD, Oliveira MBPP (2012) Intra- and interspecific mineral composition variability of commercial instant coffees and coffee substitutes: contribution to mineral intake. Food Chem 130:702–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ozbec N, Akman S (2016) Optimization and application of a slurry sampling method for the determination of total fluorine in flour using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometer. Food Anal Methods 9:2925–2932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pigozzi MT, Passos FR, Mendes FQO, Horta GH (2018) Quality of commercial coffees: heavy metal and ash contents. J Food Qual 2018:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pizarro CAP, Miglioranza E, Nagashima G, Grecco F (2009) Heavy metals concentration in coffee grains produced in farming under basalt and Caiuá sandstone soils. Cienc Rural 39:1590Google Scholar
  26. Pohl P, Stelmach E, Szymczycha-Madeja A (2014) Determination of total concentrations and chemical and physical fractionation forms of manganese in infusions of ground coffees. Food Anal Methods 7:676–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Santos JS, Santos MLP, Conti MM, Santos SN, Oliveira O (2009) Evaluation of some metals in Brazilian coffees cultivated during the process of conversion from conventional to organic agriculture. Food Chem 115:1405–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Santos JS, Santos MLP, Conti MM (2010) Comparative study of metal contents in Brazilian coffees cultivated by conventional and organic agriculture applying principal component analysis. J Braz Chem Soc 21:1468–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Santos WNL, Cavalcante DD, Macedo SM, Nogueira JS, Silva EGP (2013) Slurry sampling and HG AFS for the determination of total arsenic in rice samples. Food Anal Methods 6:1128–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scarminio IS, Bruns RE, Neto BB (2006) Statistical design – chemometrics, vol 422, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  31. Scheffler GL, Dressier VL, Pozebon D (2014) Rice slurry analysis using mixed-gas plasma and axially viewed ICP OES. Food Anal Methods 7:1415–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Silva LOB, Silva DG, Leão DJ, Matos GD, Ferreira SLC (2012) Slurry sampling for the determination of mercury in rice using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 5:1289–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Souza RA, Baccan N, Cadore S (2011) Determination of elemental content in solid sweeteners by slurry sampling and ICP OES. Food Chem 124:1264–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun H, Liu X, Miao Y (2011) Speciation analysis of trace inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements by slurry sampling hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 4:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vitali L, Vieira IC, Spinelli A (2011) Sensor-containing microspheres of chitosan crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid for determination of Cu (II) in instant coffee. Food Chem 126:807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yilmaz E, Ocsoy I, Ozdemir N, Soylak M (2016) Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: an effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples. Anal Chim Acta 906:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariadna Chaves Trindade
    • 1
  • Sulene Alves Araújo
    • 1
  • Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim
    • 2
  • Darci Santos Silva
    • 1
  • Juscelia Pereira Santos Alves
    • 1
  • Joabes Santos Trindade
    • 1
  • Rosane Moura Aguiar
    • 1
  • Marcos Almeida Bezerra
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências e TecnologiasUniversidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de JequiéJequiéBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciências Exatas e TecnológicasUniversidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de AndradeIlhéusBrazil

Personalised recommendations