Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 166–175 | Cite as

Optimization of Milk Sample Cleanup Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Lucas Ulisses Rovigatti ChiavelliEmail author
  • Antonio Cesar Godoy
  • Roberta da Silveira
  • Patricia Daniele Silva Santos
  • Tiago A. M. Lopes
  • Oscar Oliveira Santos
  • Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer


Protein precipitation is a fast and simple methodology for sample preparation in milk, performed by addition of an organic solvent compatible with the analytical system. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare four organic solvents efficiency: (i) acetonitrile, (ii) acetone, (iii) ethanol, and (iv) isopropanol for deproteinization. Acetonitrile was the most efficient at freezer temperature, while at room temperature the most efficient solvent was acetone. In order to optimize precipitation conditions, two central composite designs (CCDs) associated with response surface methodology (RSM) were performed using acetonitrile as precipitant. ANOVA was applied to the experimental designs and data were adjusted to quadratic model with high order of significance, suitable adjustment of the experimental data, with Adjusted-R2 > 0.98, and adequacy precision desirable. For models’ optimization and validation, the desirability function was performed, and under the optimized conditions, which were obtained with a total desirability value of 1.000, the experimental values are statistically equal to predicted values for protein. The volume of precipitant and the ultrasound time were significant on the response, whereas the vortex time was a non-signifcant factor. The RSM was applied efficiently in the optimization process allowing the simultaneous evaluation of the variables on the response.


Milk Sample preparation Protein precipitation Precipitant solvent Central composite design 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Lucas Ulisses Rovigatti Chiavelli declares that he has no conflict of interest. Antonio Cesar Godoy declares that he has no conflict of interest. Roberta da Silveira declares that he has no conflict of interest. Patricia Daniele Silva Santos declares that she has no conflict of interest. Tiago A. M. Lopes declares that he has no conflict of interest. Oscar Oliveira Santos declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer declares that he has no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucas Ulisses Rovigatti Chiavelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Cesar Godoy
    • 1
  • Roberta da Silveira
    • 1
  • Patricia Daniele Silva Santos
    • 1
  • Tiago A. M. Lopes
    • 1
  • Oscar Oliveira Santos
    • 1
  • Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Ciênicas Exatas - Departamento de QuímicaUniversidade Estadual de MaringáMaringáBrazil

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