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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 195–202 | Cite as

Direct Analysis of Cocoa Powder, Chocolate Powder, and Powdered Chocolate Drink for Multi-element Determination by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

  • Luciane B. Oliveira
  • Wagna P. C. dos Santos
  • Leonardo S. G. Teixeira
  • Maria Graças A. KornEmail author
Article
  • 93 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry to determine Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Al concentrations for direct analysis of cocoa powder, chocolate powder, and powdered chocolate drink samples. The proposed method was calibrated using samples previously analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For comparison purposes, the samples were also analyzed by ICP OES after an acid digestion procedure, and no significant differences were observed between the concentrations determined by EDXRF when compared to those by ICP OES. The coefficients of correlation (R) from the calibration curves and the limit of quantification (mg kg−1) were Ca (0.996, 0.030), K (0.985, 68), Mg (0.974, 0.020), P (0.986, 0.50), Mn (0.998, 3.6), Fe (0.981, 2.5), Cu (0.978, 1.3), Zn (0.996, 0.80), and Al (0.983, 7.5). The precisions obtained for the elements were between 1.5 and 7.8% (n = 7), indicating that the preparation of the pellets was efficient to perform analysis by EDXRF. Potassium was the macro-mineral with higher concentrations in the samples. In relation to the micro-minerals, Fe had the greatest concentration. Significant concentrations of Al were also found. It was found that, in general, samples of chocolate powder and powdered chocolate drink may be considered good sources for the ingestion of Mg, Mn, Ca, K, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu.

Keywords

Cocoa powder Chocolate powder Powdered chocolate drink Inorganic constituents Direct analysis EDXRF 

Notes

Funding Information

The authors are supported granted by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB, Brazil) for providing grants, fellowships, and other financial support. This study also was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Luciane B. Oliveira declares that she has no conflict of interest. Wagna P. C. dos Santos declares that she has no conflict of interest. Leonardo S. G. Teixeira declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Graças A. Korn declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies involving human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1565_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 31 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Química, Departamento de Química AnalíticaUniversidade Federal da BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Federal de AlagoasPenedoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de QuímicaInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  4. 4.INCT de Energia e Ambiente-Universidade Federal da BahiaInstituto de QuímicaSalvadorBrazil

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