Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 176–185 | Cite as

Determination and In Vitro Bioaccessibility Evaluation of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seeds by ICP OES

  • Filipe B. Santana
  • Laís A. Souza
  • Wellington C. Carvalho
  • Maria Graças A. Korn
  • Daniele C. M. B. SantosEmail author


The objective of this study was to determine the total content and estimate the bioaccessible fraction of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For the evaluation of the total content, a method of acid digestion was developed, using a complete factorial design 23, in a digester block with reflux system using cold finger, and the variables chosen were as follows: volume of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Optimization provided the best conditions considering 5.0 mL of HNO3 65% m m−1, 0.5 mL of H2SO4 98% m m−1, and 3.0 mL of H2O2 30% m m−1. The detection limits, in μg g−1, were 0.18 (Cu), 0.22 (Fe), 0.28 (Mn), and 0.37 (Zn). The analyte addition and recovery test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and recovery percentage values ranging from 84 to 114% were obtained, which is considered adequate for quantitative analysis. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD). It was less than or equal to 7.6% (n = 10) for all analytes. The procedure was applied to 10 samples of chia seed commercialized in Salvador (Brazil). The following concentration ranges, in μg g−1, were found: Cu (12–24.2), Fe (53.2–108), Mn (29.8–84.2), and Zn (45.8–77.4). Bioaccessibility was assessed using an in vitro method that takes into account the entire gastrointestinal tract. The following bioaccessible fractions were obtained in percent: Cu (3.6–14), Fe (5.2–5.5), Mn (5.8–29.1), and Zn (< 0.7 μg g−1). The procedure was validated through a mass balance (bioaccessible content + residual fraction compared with the total content), which presented percentages of recovery ranging from 82 to 156%. This new information provides a starting point for more complex evaluations from the nutritional point of view, including the establishment of a recommended daily dietary intake for this frequently consumed seed.


Chia Total content Inorganic constituents Bioaccessibility ICP OES 



This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB), providing scholarship, financial support, and infrastructure. This study also was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Santana declares that she has no conflict of interest. Souza declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carvalho declares that he has no conflict of interest. Korn declares that he has no conflict of interest. Santos declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable for this study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal da BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.INCT de Energia e Ambiente - Universidade Federal da BahiaInstituto de QuímicaSalvadorBrazil

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