Analysis of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds from Cheese Samples Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction Combined with Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Behnam Pil-Bala
  • Jalil KhandaghiEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam


Simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of five endocrine disrupting compounds including di-butyl phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalates, di-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-ethylhexyl adipate, and bisphenol A from cheese have been developed using pressurized liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. In this method, initially, the analytes are extracted into a water-miscible extraction solvent (acetone) at high pressure (1000 psi) and temperature (70 °C) in the presence of carbon tetrachloride as a modifier. After extraction, a volume of the organic phase is removed and dispersed into deionized water. The cloudy solution was centrifuged, and the sedimented phase is used in analysis. Efficient parameters were optimized using one-parameter-at-one-time strategy, and low limits of detection and quantification in the ranges of 0.82–3.1 and 2.8–10 ng g−1 were obtained, respectively. Relative standard deviations lower than 8% show an acceptable precision for the present method. The enrichment factors and extraction recoveries in the ranges of 259–319 and 78–96% were achieved, respectively. Lastly, some real samples were analyzed and di-butyl phthalate and di-ethylhexyl phthalate were found in them.


Endocrine-disrupting compounds Pressurized liquid extraction Dispersive liquid–liquid extraction High-performance liquid chromatography 



Endocrine-disrupting compounds


Liquid-phase microextraction


Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction


Pressurized liquid extraction


Liquid–liquid extraction


High-performance liquid chromatography


Diode array detector



Jalil Khandaghi has received research grants from Sarab Branch of Islamic Azad University. This work received financial support from the Research Council of the Sarab Branch of Islamic Azad University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Behnam Pil Bala declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jalil Khandaghi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behnam Pil-Bala
    • 1
  • Jalil Khandaghi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Sarab BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySarabIran
  2. 2.Food and Drug Safety Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Pharmaceutical Analysis Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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