Advertisement

Determination of Malachite Green in Fish by a Modified MOF-Based Electrochemical Sensor

  • Yanli ZhouEmail author
  • Xiaoqiao Li
  • Zhonghao Pan
  • Baoxian Ye
  • Maotian Xu
Article

Abstract

Cu-based metal-organic frameworks modified by silver (Ag/Cu-MOFs) were in situ fabricated through a one-step direct synthesis. The as-prepared mixed-node MOFs were modified on glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was utilized as a voltammetric sensor for probing malachite green. Compared with the bare GC electrode, the introduced Ag/Cu-MOF film on the electrode surface dramatically improved the sensitivity of the sensor response according to the accumulation and catalytic activity of Ag/Cu-MOFs for malachite green. The developed electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit of 2.2 nM with a wide linear range of 10–140 nM and high anti-interference ability. The feasibility of the assay was verified by test of malachite green in fish sample. The proposed strategy presents valuable information for the evaluation of the food safety in aquaculture industry.

Keywords

Cu-based metal-organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) Silver modification Electrochemical sensor Malachite green Fish sample 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21675109), the Central Thousand Talents Plan (No. ZYQR201810151), the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province (162300410209), and Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Early Diagnosis of Major Diseases.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yanli Zhou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaoqiao Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhonghao Pan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Baoxian Ye declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maotian Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Bétard A, Fischer RA (2012) Metal organic framework thin films: from fundamentals to applications. Chem Rev 112:1055–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen GY, Miao S (2010) HPLC determination and MS confirmation of malachite green, gentian violet, and their leuco metabolite residues in channel catfish muscle. J Agric Food Chem 58:7109–7114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Culp SJ, Beland FA (1996) Malachite green: a toxicological review. J Am Coll Toxicol 15:219–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dong JX, Xu C, Wang H, Xiao ZL, Gee SJ, Li ZF, Wang F, Wu WJ, Shen YD, Yang JY, Sun YM, Hammock BD (2014) Enhanced sensitive immunoassay: noncompetitive phage anti-immune complex assay for the determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green. J Agric Food Chem 62:8752–8758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fallah AA, Barani A (2014) Determination of malachite green residues in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. Food Control 40:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guo ZY, Gai PP, Hao TT, Duan J, Wang S (2011) Determination of malachite green residues in fish using a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence method combined with molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. J Agric Food Chem 59:5257–5262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang BM, Zhou XB, Chen J, Wu GF, Lu XQ (2015) Determination of malachite green in fish based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by electrochemiluminescence. Talanta 142:228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jia J, Yan S, Lai XX, Xu YZ, Liu T, Xiang YH (2018) Colorimetric aptasensor for detection of malachite green in fish sample based on RNA and gold nanoparticles. Food Anal Methods 11:1668–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Laviron E (1974) Study on the behavior of the mercury film electrode. J Electroanal Chem 52:355–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li L, Lin ZZ, Peng AH, Zhong HP, Chen XM, Huang ZY (2016) Biomimetic ELISA detection of malachite green based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers. J Chromatogr B 1035:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu LT, Zhou YL, Liu S, Xu MT (2018) The applications of metal-organic frameworks in electrochemical sensors. ChemElectroChem 5:6–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lvov Y, Mohwald H (2000) In protein architecture: interfacing molecular assemblies and immobilization biotechnology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 125–166Google Scholar
  13. Martín-Yerga D, Pérez-Junquera A, Hernández-Santos D, Fanjul-Bolado P (2018) In situ activation of thick-film disposable copper electrodes for sensitive detection of malachite green using electrochemical surface-enhanced Raman scattering (EC-SERS). Electroanalysis 30:1095–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maxwell EJ, Tong WG (2016) Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr B 1020:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Misran H, Salim MA, Ramesh S (2018) Effect of Ag nanoparticles seeding on the properties of silica spheres. Ceram Int 44:5901–5908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morozan A, Jaouen F (2012) Metal organic frameworks for electrochemical applications. Energy Environ Sci 5:9269–9290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nebot C, Iglesias A, Barreiro R, Miranda JM, Vázquez B, Franco CM, Cepeda A (2013) A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of malachite green and its metabolite in hake by HPLCeMS/MS. Food Control 31:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ouyang L, Yao L, Zhou TH, Zhu LH (2017) Accurate SERS detection of malachite green in aquatic products on basis of graphene wrapped flexible sensor. Anal Chim Acta 1027:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sacara AM, Cristea C, Muresan LM (2017a) Electrochemical detection of malachite green using glassy carbon electrodes modified with CeO2 nanoparticles and Nafion. J Electroanal Chem 792:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sacara AM, Nairi V, Salis A, Turdean GL, Muresan LM (2017b) Silica-modified electrodes for electrochemical detection of malachite green. Electroanalysis 29:2602–2609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shao JT, Zhao YM, Liu FY, Li W, Gao YL (2015) Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green based on electrochemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)3 2+ at graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrodes. RSC Adv 5:14547–14552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shen YD, Deng YF, Xu ZL, Wang Y, Lei HT, Wang H, Yang JY, Xiao ZL, Sun YM (2011) Simultaneous determination of malachite green, brilliant green and crystal violet in grass carp tissues by a broad-specificity indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anal Chim Acta 707:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shi ZN, Li L, Xiao YX, Wang YX, Sun KK, Wang HX, Liu L (2017) Synthesis of mixed-ligand cu-MOFs and their adsorption of malachite green. RSC Adv 7:30904–30910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Srivastava S, Sinha R, Roy D (2004) Toxicological effects of malachite green. Aquat Toxicol 66:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stassen I, Burtch N, Talin A, Falcaro P, Allendorfc M, Ameloot R (2017) An updated roadmap for the integration of metal–organic frameworks with electronic devices and chemical sensors. Chem Soc Rev 46:3185–3241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stead SL, Ashwin H, Johnston BH, Dallas A, Kazakov SA, Tarbin JA, Sharman M, Kay J, Keely BJ (2010) An RNA-aptamer-based assay for the detection and analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green residues in fish tissue. Anal Chem 82:2652–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun ZG, Li G, Zhang Y, Liu HO, Gao XH (2015) Ag–Cu–BTC prepared by postsynthetic exchange as effective catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde. Catal Commun 59:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tan EZ, Yin PG, You TT, Wang H, Guo L (2012) Three dimensional design of large-scale TiO2 nanorods scaffold decorated by silver nanoparticles as SERS sensor for ultrasensitive malachite green detection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:3432–3437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang HZ, Wang Y, Liu S, Yu JH, Xu W, Guo YN, Huang JD (2014) An RNA aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of malachite green. RSC Adv 4:60987–60994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang YL, Liao KR, Huang XJ, Yuan DX (2015) Simultaneous determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in aquaculture water samples using monolithic fiber-based solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatograph. Anal Methods 7:8138–8145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang F, Wang H, Shen YD, Li YJ, Dong JX, Xu ZL, Yang JY, Sun YM, Xiao ZL (2016) Bispecific monoclonal antibody-based multi-analyte ELISA for furaltadone metabolite, malachite green and leucomalachite green in aquatic products. J Agric Food Chem 64:8054–8061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu L, Lin ZZ, Zhong HP, Chen XM, Huang ZY (2017) Rapid determination of malachite green in water and fish using a fluorescent probe based on CdTe quantum dots coated with molecularly imprinted polymer. Sensor Actuators B Chem 239:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xie J, Peng T, Chen DD, Zhang QJ, Wang GM, Wang X, Guo Q, Jiang F, Chen D, Deng J (2013) Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC–VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. J Chromatogr B 913–914:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yi HC, Qu WY, Huang WS (2008) Electrochemical determination of malachite green using a multi-wall carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode. Microchim Acta 160:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang K, Song G, Yang LX, Zhou J, Ye BX (2012) A novel self-assembly voltammetric sensor for malachite green based on ethylenediamine and graphene oxide. Anal Methods 4:4257–4263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang YY, Yu WS, Pei L, Lai KQ, Rasco BA, Huang YQ (2015) Rapid analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green in fish muscles with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. Food Chem 169:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhu QL, Xu Q (2014) Metal-organic framework composites. Chem Soc Rev 43:5468–5512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zusková E, Máchová J, Svobodova Z, Vesely T (2007) Negative effects of malachite green and possibilities of its replacement in the treatment of fish eggs and fish: a review. Vet Med 52:527–539Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henan Key Laboratory of Biomolecular Recognition and Sensing, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringShangqiu Normal UniversityShangqiuPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations