Electronic Nose in Combination with Chemometrics for Characterization of Geographical Origin and Agronomic Practices of Table Grape

  • Francesco LongobardiEmail author
  • Grazia Casiello
  • Valentina Centonze
  • Lucia Catucci
  • Angela Agostiano


Nowadays, the protection of food quality attributes (such as geographical origin or method of production) from frauds and adulterations is one of the main concerns of honest producers and aware consumers. In this study, table grape samples were analyzed by using an electronic nose aiming to evaluate the usefulness of sensor data in combination with statistical analysis in discriminating the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the geographical origin of table grape. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed inadequate clustering of samples according to places of production or agronomic practice; thus for classification purpose, a supervised approach was carried out. In particular, linear discriminant analyses (LDA) was used, resulting in mean prediction abilities of 83.6% and 84.6% for the discrimination of farming method and geographical origin, respectively. Considering the results obtained herein, it can be concluded that sensor data combined with chemometrics showed a good potential in discriminating origin as well as method of production of table grapes especially if compared with other analytical techniques both in terms of time and cost of analyses.


Electronic nose Table grape Geographical origin Agronomic practices Chemometrics 


Funding Information

The authors acknowledge the financial support by “Intervento Reti di Laboratori Pubblici di Ricerca cofinanziato dall’Accordo di Programma Quadro in materia di Ricerca Scientifica—II Atto Integrativo—PO Puglia FESR 2007–2013, Asse I, Linea 1.2—PO Puglia FSE 2007–2013 Asse IV” (“Apulian Food Fingerprint” project).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Francesco Longobardi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Grazia Casiello declares that she has no conflict of interest. Valentina Centonze declares that she has no conflict of interest. Lucia Catucci declares that she has no conflict of interest. Angela Agostiano declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies involving human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable, as this study does not include any human participants.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1458_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (178 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 178 kb)
12161_2019_1458_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (161 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 161 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità di Bari “Aldo Moro”BariItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheIstituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (IPCF-CNR)BariItaly

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