Simultaneous Determination of Atrazine, Pendimethalin, and Trifluralin in Fish Samples by QuEChERS Extraction Coupled With Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection

  • Ting ZhangEmail author
  • Zhipeng Qu
  • Bin Li
  • Zhaoguang YangEmail author


A rapid, simple, and dependable method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of atrazine, pendimethalin, and trifluralin in fish samples. Target analytes were extracted and purified by the modified QuEChERS method prior to analysis. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (10 min) was used to improve the extraction efficiency of classical acetonitrile extraction. The organic phase was then cleaned using dispersive solid-phase extraction with 150 mg primary secondary amine and 100 mg C18-bonded silica sorbents. GC with electron capture detection was used for determination. The method resulted in good linearity (R2 = 0.9973–0.9998) and low limits of detection and quantification (0.015–0.60 and 0.050–2.0 μg kg−1). Recoveries ranged from 76.8 to 94.6% with repeatability between 2.3 and 3.8% and reproducibility between 3.4 and 4.8%. The performance parameters demonstrated the method adequacy for the detection and quantification of atrazine, pendimethalin, and trifluralin residues in freshwater fish.


Dispersive solid-phase extraction Herbicides Ultrasound-assisted extraction 



This study was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (No. 201503108).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ting Zhang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhipeng Qu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Bin Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zhaoguang Yang declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any study with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1449_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2093 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Water Environment and Agriculture Product SafetyCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Center for Environment and Water ResourcesCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

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