Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 773–779 | Cite as

Tracing the Geographical Origin of Lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) by Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

  • Valentina Innamorato
  • Francesco LongobardiEmail author
  • Vincenzo Lippolis
  • Marina Cortese
  • Antonio F. Logrieco
  • Lucia Catucci
  • Angela Agostiano
  • Annalisa De Girolamo


The feasibility of applying the infrared spectroscopy for the geographical origin traceability of lentils from two different countries (Italy and Canada) was investigated. In particular, lentil samples were analyzed by Fourier transform near- and mid-infrared (FT-NIR and FT-MIR) spectroscopy and then discriminated by applying supervised models, i.e., linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). To avoid LDA overfitting, two variable strategies were adopted, i.e., a variable reduction by principal component analysis and a variable compression by wavelet packet transform algorithm. FT-MIR models were more discriminating compared to FT-NIR ones with prediction abilities ranging from 98 to 100% and from 91 to 100% for cross- and external validation, respectively. The combination of the FT-MIR and FT-NIR data did not improve the model performances. These findings demonstrated the suitability of the FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with supervised pattern recognition techniques, to successfully classify lentils according to their geographical origin.


FT-MIR spectroscopy FT-NIR spectroscopy Lentils Geographical origin Linear discriminant analysis Partial least squares discriminant analysis 



The authors would like to thank Salvatore Cervellieri for his technical support. The authors are grateful to Dr. Christoph von Holst (Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Belgium) for helpful suggestions in the preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Valentina Innamorato declares that she has no conflict of interest. Francesco Longobardi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Vincenzo Lippolis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Marina Cortese declares that she has no conflict of interest. Antonio F. Logrieco declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lucia Catucci declares that she has no conflict of interest. Angela Agostiano declares that she has no conflict of interest. Annalisa De Girolamo declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies involving human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable as this study does not include any human participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Innamorato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francesco Longobardi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Vincenzo Lippolis
    • 2
  • Marina Cortese
    • 2
  • Antonio F. Logrieco
    • 2
  • Lucia Catucci
    • 1
    • 3
  • Angela Agostiano
    • 1
    • 3
  • Annalisa De Girolamo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Bari A. MoroBariItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA)National Research Council of Italy (CNR)BariItaly
  3. 3.Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes (IPCF)National Research Council of Italy (CNR)BariItaly

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